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  • Author or Editor: Aida I. Vientos-Plotts x
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To determine if multistrain probiotics administered to asthmatic cats treated with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids would attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and beneficially alter respiratory, blood, and oropharyngeal (OP) microbial communities and immune parameters versus placebo.


13 client-owned asthmatic cats.


A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of asthmatic cats receiving anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids with oral multistrain probiotics or placebo assessed owner-perceived improvement and airway eosinophilia at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, OP, and rectal microbial communities were compared using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Real-time PCR for transcription factors, activation markers and cytokines, and IgA ELISAs were evaluated. Statistical analyses used 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA or permutational ANOVA (significance, P < .05).


After treatment, there were no significant differences in owner-perceived clinical signs or mean ± SEM BALF eosinophils between groups. There was a significant decrease in rectal α-diversity but not in α- or β-diversity in BALF, blood, or OP between groups or over time. There were no significant differences in CD25, FoxP3, GATA, Helios, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ mRNA, or serum or BALF IgA between groups or over time.


In asthmatic cats, oral multistrain probiotics failed to improve owner-perceived signs, reduce airway eosinophilia, modify microbial community composition, or alter assessed immune responses versus placebo or over time. Longer treatment, different probiotic composition or delivery (eg, aerosolized), or larger number of cats would represent the next stages of study.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of blood contamination on dipstick results, specific gravity (SG), and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio (UPCR) for urine samples from dogs and cats.

SAMPLE Urine samples collected from 279 dogs and 120 cats.

PROCEDURES Urine pools were made for each species (dogs [n = 60] and cats [30]). Blood was added to an aliquot of a pool, and serial dilutions were prepared with the remaining urine. Color and dipstick variables were recorded, and SG and UPCR were measured. For cats, 1 set of pools was used; for dogs, 2 sets were used. Comparisons were made between undiluted urine and spiked urine samples for individual colors. Repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare dipstick scores and UPCR results; χ2 tests were used to compare proteinuria categorizations (nonproteinuric, borderline, or proteinuric).

RESULTS Any blood in the urine resulted in significantly increased dipstick scores for blood. In both species, scores for bilirubin and ketones, pH, and SG were affected by visible blood contamination. No significant difference for the dipstick protein reagent results was evident until a sample was visibly hematuric. The UPCR was significantly increased in dark yellow samples of both species. Proteinuria categorizations differed significantly between undiluted urine and urine of all colors, except light yellow.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Any degree of blood contamination affected results of dipstick analysis. Effects depended on urine color and the variable measured. Microscopic blood contamination may affect the UPCR; thus, blood contamination may be a differential diagnosis for proteinuria in yellow urine samples.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research