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  • Author or Editor: Ahmira R. Torres x
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Abstract

Case Description—A 9-year-old neutered male Golden Retriever was evaluated because of recurrent lower urinary tract infection subsequent to placement of a permanent cystostomy tube.

Clinical Findings—The dog was clinically normal except for the presence of malodorous urine. Bacteriologic culture of a urine sample obtained by cystocentesis yielded growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, imipenemcilastatin, and ticarcillin–clavulanic acid.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog was administered amikacin sulfate (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], SC, q 24 h) for 14 days before treatment was discontinued because of the presence of casts in the urine. The cystostomy tube was replaced, and intravesical instillation of amikacin (15 mg/kg diluted in 30 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, q 12 h) was initiated. On day 25 of instillation treatment, bacterial culture of a urine sample yielded no growth, urinalysis revealed no casts, and SUN and creatinine concentrations were within reference intervals. On day 27 of instillation treatment, gross hematuria was observed, which resolved following discontinuation of amikacin instillation.

Clinical Relevance—In this dog, treatment of a lower urinary tract infection caused by a multidrug-resistant strain of P aeruginosa was successfully achieved with intravesical instillation of amikacin. Results of serial serum biochemical analyses remained within reference limits, and urine casts were not identified on urinalyses during the treatment period, which suggested that systemic absorption of amikacin was minimal. Intravesical instillation of antimicrobials may be a viable treatment option for dogs with lower urinary tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for a 5-year history of intermittent hematochezia and chronic anemia that were unresponsive to medical treatment.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Colonoscopy revealed multifocal areas of coalescing tortuous mucosal blood vessels throughout the colon and rectum. Colonic vascular ectasia (angiodysplasia) was diagnosed on the basis of the endoscopic appearance of the lesions.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog failed to respond to traditional medical treatments for colonic vascular ectasia and required multiple plasma and blood transfusions. The dog received 4 endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatments, which resulted in long-term resolution of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Colonic perforation occurred during the third argon plasma coagulation treatment. The perforation was surgically repaired. The dog remained free from clinical signs of colonic vascular ectasia for > 1 year after the third argon plasma coagulation treatment and was euthanized because of clinical deterioration associated with progressive heart disease.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatment is a novel treatment for dogs with colonic vascular ectasia and provided long-term resolution of clinical signs for the dog of this report. In human patients, complications associated with endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatment include colonic perforation, which also occurred in the dog of this report.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-year-old spayed female Bengal cat was evaluated because of a history of bilateral pleural effusion and hydronephrosis of the right kidney.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Cytologic analysis of a pleural fluid sample revealed characteristics of a pure transudate with a high percentage of lymphocytes. Results of fluid biochemical testing were not consistent with urine or chyle. Serum biochemical analysis and echocardiography yielded no evidence of hypoalbuminemia or high hydrostatic pressure secondary to cardiac disease. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed hydronephrosis of the right kidney and hydroureter of the right ureter.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory laparotomy with nephrectomy of the right kidney was performed. At the time of surgery, there was no evidence of communication between the retroperitoneal space and thoracic cavity. No other treatments were performed. No evidence of pleural fluid accumulation was detected 1 week after surgery, and no recurrence of clinical signs associated with pleural effusion was observed for > 1 year after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Transudative, or nonchylous lymphatic, pleural effusion secondary to intra-abdominal disease, but independent of a low plasma protein concentration, is uncommon in veterinary medicine. This case emphasized that urinary tract obstruction should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cats with pleural effusion when more common disorders are not identified. Even without evidence of direct communication between the abnormal kidney or retroperitoneal space and the pleural space, removal of the hydronephrotic kidney appeared curative.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association