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  • Author or Editor: Ahmed S. Mohamed x
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Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection.

Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.

Animals—1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006.

Procedures—Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results—2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs < 0.5 years old had higher odds of Toxocara and Ancylostoma parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of eyelid manipulation and manual jugular compression on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement in clinically normal dogs.

Design—Randomized clinical trial.

Animals—30 dogs (57 eyes) without diseases or medications that affect IOP.

Procedures—An applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP during eyelid manipulation or jugular compression. Six manipulations were used in each eye, including minimal eyelid manipulation, maximal dorsoventral extension of the eyelids, lateral eyelid extension, manual compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein, manual compression of both jugular veins, and lateral eyelid extension with manual compression of both jugular veins. Skull type and position of globe in the orbit were recorded.

Results—The 2 manipulations that caused the greatest significant increase in mean IOP were lateral eyelid extension with compression of both jugular veins (difference from baseline IOP, 17.6 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7 to 19.5 mm Hg) and lateral eyelid extension alone (16.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, 14.6 to 18.4 mm Hg). Dorsoventral eyelid extension (6.42 mm Hg; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.3 mm Hg) and compression of both jugular veins alone (3.0 mm Hg; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5.0 mm Hg) significantly increased mean IOP, compared with baseline. Compression of the ipsilateral jugular vein increased mean IOP (0.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, −1.6 to 2.2 mm Hg) from baseline, but not significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Traction on the eyelids or pressure on both jugular veins can significantly increase IOP values as measured by use of applanation tonometry in clinically normal dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association