Objective—To identify practices associated with failure of heartworm prophylaxis among dog and kennel owners and dog trainers.
Design—Online survey and mail-in questionnaire.
Sample—708 members of a national hunting dog club.
Procedures—Heartworm prevention practices used by respondents that reported failure of prophylaxis were compared with practices used by respondents that reported success.
Results—Univariate analyses indicated failure of heartworm prophylaxis was inversely related to the number of dogs under a respondent's care. Year-round prophylactic practice was not significantly associated with reduced odds of failure, and efforts to control exposure to mosquitoes were similar among the comparison groups. Respondents reporting prophylaxis failure were more likely to test for heartworm infection ≥ 1 time/y, compared with those reporting success. In a multivariable analysis, residence south of the Virginia-North Carolina state line (ie, the 37th geographic parallel), testing for heartworm infection < once a year when the test was administered prior to April 1, and keeping dogs outdoors for longer periods at dusk, at dawn, or after dark were associated with increased odds of prophylaxis failure.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should stress the importance of annual heartworm testing 6 to 7 months after the last possible date of exposure to heartworm, regardless of whether a dog receives prophylactic treatment year-round. Reducing the number of hours dogs spend outdoors at dusk, at dawn, or after dark may reduce the odds of heartworm disease even when dogs are given preventive treatment.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of IM administration of a tiletamine hydrochloride–zolazepam hydrochloride (TZ) combination with either dexmedetomidine hydrochloride or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS) on the motor response to claw clamping, selected cardiorespiratory variables, and quality of recovery from anesthesia in alpacas.
ANIMALS 5 adult sexually intact male alpacas.
PROCEDURES Each alpaca was given the TZ combination (2 mg/kg) with dexmedetomidine (5 [D5], 10 [D10], 15 [D15], or 20 [D20] µg/kg) or SS IM at 1-week intervals (5 experiments); motor response to claw clamping was assessed, and characteristics of anesthesia, recovery from anesthesia, and selected cardiorespiratory variables were recorded.
RESULTS Mean ± SEM duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping was longest when alpacas received treatments D15 (30.9 ± 5.9 minutes) and D20 (40.8 ± 5.9 minutes). Duration of lateral recumbency was significantly longer with dexmedetomidine administration. The longest time (81.3 ± 10.4 minutes) to standing was observed when alpacas received treatment D20. Following treatment SS, 4 alpacas moved in response to claw clamping at the 5-minute time point. Heart rate decreased from pretreatment values in all alpacas when dexmedetomidine was administered. Treatments D10, D15, and D20 decreased Pao2, compared with treatment SS, during the first 15 minutes. During recovery, muscle stiffness and multiple efforts to regain a sternal position were observed in 3 SS-treated and 1 D5-treated alpacas; all other recoveries were graded as excellent.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In TZ-anesthetized alpacas, dexmedetomidine (10, 15, and 20 µg/kg) administered IM increased the duration of lack of motor response to claw clamping, compared with the effect of SS.
OBJECTIVE To assess insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin expression within pancreatic islets of horses with and without insulin resistance.
ANIMALS 10 insulin-resistant horses and 13 insulin-sensitive horses.
PROCEDURES For each horse, food was withheld for at least 10 hours before a blood sample was collected for determination of serum insulin concentration. Horses with a serum insulin concentration < 20 μU/mL were assigned to the insulin-sensitive group, whereas horses with a serum insulin concentration > 20 μU/mL underwent a frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test to determine sensitivity to insulin by minimal model analysis. Horses with a sensitivity to insulin < 1.0 × 10−4 L•min−1•mU−1 were assigned to the insulin-resistant group. All horses were euthanized with a barbiturate overdose, and pancreatic specimens were harvested and immunohistochemically stained for determination of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin expression in pancreatic islets. Islet hormone expression was compared between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive horses.
RESULTS Cells expressing insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin made up approximately 62%, 12%, and 7%, respectively, of pancreatic islet cells in insulin-resistant horses and 64%, 18%, and 9%, respectively, of pancreatic islet cells in insulin-sensitive horses. Expression of insulin and somatostatin did not differ between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive horses, but the median percentage of glucagon-expressing cells in the islets of insulin-resistant horses was significantly less than that in insulin-sensitive horses.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that, in insulin-resistant horses, insulin secretion was not increased but glucagon production might be downregulated as a compensatory response to hyperinsulinemia.
Objective—To determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species.
Animals—15 healthy juvenile green iguanas.
Procedures—Baseline cardiopulmonary values were determined in 15 conscious iguanas breathing room air. Effects of 100% O2 inspiration were also measured (n = 6), and the baroreceptor reflex was characterized by exponential sigmoidal curve fitting analysis.
Results—Conscious iguanas had a mean ± SD resting heart rate of 52 ± 8 beats/min, respiratory rate of 28 ± 6 breaths/min, and systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures of 69 ± 10 mm Hg, 62 ± 12 mm Hg, and 56 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively. Mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.29 ± 0.11, Pao2 was 81 ± 10 mm Hg, and Paco2 was 42 ± 9 mm Hg; corrected for a body temperature of 30°C, mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.382 ±0.12, Pao2 was 54 ± 15 mm Hg, and Paco2 was 32 ± 7 mm Hg. Inspiration of 100% O2 did not change heart and respiratory rates but increased Pao2 to 486 ± 105 mm Hg (corrected value, 437 ± 96 mm Hg). A baroreceptor reflex was evident, with mean heart rates ranging from 30 ± 3 beats/min to 63 ± 5 beats/min and mean arterial blood pressures ranging from 42 ± 3 mm Hg to 58 ± 3 mm Hg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided needed information on cardiopulmonary values in healthy green iguanas, the application and limitation of arterial and venous blood gas analysis, and the accuracy of pulse oximetry.
Objective—To develop an early-warning automated surveillance-data–analysis system for early outbreak detection and reporting and to assess its performance on an abortion outbreak in mares in Kentucky.
Sample Population—426 data sets of abortions in mares in Kentucky during December 2000 to July 2001.
Procedures—A custom software system was developed to automatically extract and analyze data from a Laboratory Information Management System database. The software system was tested on data on abortions in mares in Kentucky reported between December 1, 2000, and July 31, 2001. The prospective space-time permutations scan statistic, proposed by Kulldorff, was used to detect and identify abortion outbreak signals.
Results—Results indicated that use of the system would have detected the abortion outbreak approximately 1 week earlier than traditional surveillance systems. However, the geographic scale of analysis was critical for highest sensitivity in outbreak detection. Use of the lower geographic scale of analysis (ie, postal [zip code]) enhanced earlier detection of significant clusters, compared with use of the higher geographic scale (ie, county).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The automated surveillance-data–analysis system would be useful in early detection of endemic, emerging, and foreign animal disease outbreaks and might help in detection of a bioterrorist attack. Manual analyses of such a large number of data sets (ie, 426) with a computationally intensive algorithm would be impractical toward the goal of achieving near real-time surveillance. Use of this early-warning system would facilitate early interventions that should result in more positive health outcomes.
Objective—To evaluate first-intention healing of CO2 laser, 4.0-MHz radiowave radiosurgery (RWRS), and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius).
Animals—6 healthy adult ball pythons.
Procedures—A skin biopsy sample was collected, and 2-cm skin incisions (4/modality) were made in each snake under anesthesia and closed with surgical staples on day 0. Incision sites were grossly evaluated and scored daily. One skin biopsy sample per incision type per snake was obtained on days 2, 7, 14, and 30. Necrotic and fibroplastic tissue was measured in histologic sections; samples were assessed and scored for total inflammation, histologic response (based on the measurement of necrotic and fibroplastic tissues and total inflammation score), and other variables. Frequency distributions of gross and histologic variables associated with wound healing were calculated.
Results—Gross wound scores were significantly greater (indicating greater separation of wound edges) for laser incisions than for RWRS and scalpel incisions at all evaluated time points. Necrosis was significantly greater in laser and RWRS incisions than in scalpel incision sites on days 2 and 14 and days 2 and 7, respectively; fibroplasia was significantly greater in laser than in scalpel incision sites on day 30. Histologic response scores were significantly lower for scalpel than for other incision modalities on days 2, 14, and 30.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In snakes, skin incisions made with a scalpel generally had less necrotic tissue than did CO2 laser and RWRS incisions. Comparison of the 3 modalities on the basis of histologic response scores indicated that use of a scalpel was preferable, followed by RWRS and then laser.
Patient factors may alter laser photon attenuation, but these factors have not been adequately evaluated in live dogs. Our objective was to evaluate class IV laser beam attenuation (LBA) by canine tissues using a colorimeter to evaluate melanin and erythema indices. We hypothesized that greater melanin and erythema indices and unclipped hair would increase LBA, and these properties would vary among tissues.
20 client-owned dogs.
Between October 1 and December 1, 2017, colorimeter measurements and LBA in various tissues before and after clipping overlying hair were evaluated. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Statistical significance was set at P < .05.
LBA was greater in unclipped (98.6 ± 0.4%) than clipped hair (94.6 ± 0.4%). The least LBA occurred in the pinna (93%) while the greatest occurred in the caudal vertebra (100%) and caudal semitendinosis muscles (100%). Each mm of tissue thickness resulted in LBA of 11.6%. Each unit increase in melanin index resulted in a 3.3% increase in LBA. There was no association of LBA with erythema index.
To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated LBA by different tissues in live dogs using a colorimeter to evaluate melanin and erythema indices. We recommend clipping hair prior to photobiomodulation to decrease laser beam attenuation and using increased laser doses in thicker tissues and dogs with high melanin content. The colorimeter may be helpful in customizing patient treatment dosimetry. Future studies are necessary to determine therapeutic laser doses for adequate photobiomodulation effects.
OBJECTIVE To determine the minimum infusion rate (MIR) of propofol required to prevent movement in response to a noxious stimulus in dogs anesthetized with propofol alone or propofol in combination with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine.
ANIMALS 6 male Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were anesthetized on 3 occasions, at weekly intervals, with propofol alone (loading dose, 6 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.45 mg/kg/min), propofol (loading dose, 5 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.35 mg/kg/min) and a low dose of ketamine (loading dose, 2 mg/kg; CRI, 0.025 mg/kg/min), or propofol (loading dose, 4 mg/kg; initial CRI, 0.3 mg/kg/min) and a high dose of ketamine (loading dose, 3 mg/kg; CRI, 0.05 mg/kg/min). After 60 minutes, the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to a noxious electrical stimulus was determined in duplicate.
RESULTS Least squares mean ± SEM propofol MIRs required to prevent movement in response to the noxious stimulus were 0.76 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min, 0.60 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min, and 0.41 ± 0.1 mg/kg/min when dogs were anesthetized with propofol alone, propofol and low-dose ketamine, and propofol and high-dose ketamine, respectively. There were significant decreases in the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to the noxious stimulus when dogs were anesthetized with propofol and low-dose ketamine (27 ± 10%) or with propofol and high-dose ketamine (30 ± 10%).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Ketamine, at the doses studied, significantly decreased the propofol MIR required to prevent movement in response to a noxious stimulus in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of laser treatment on incisional wound healing in ball pythons (Python regius).
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult ball pythons.
PROCEDURES Snakes were sedated, a skin biopsy specimen was collected for histologic examination, and eight 2-cm skin incisions were made in each snake; each incision was closed with staples (day 0). Gross evaluation of all incision sites was performed daily for 30 days, and a wound score was assigned. Four incisions of each snake were treated (5 J/cm2 and a wavelength of 980 nm on a continuous wave sequence) by use of a class 4 laser once daily for 7 consecutive days; the other 4 incisions were not treated. Two excisional skin biopsy specimens (1 control and 1 treatment) were collected from each snake on days 2, 7, 14, and 30 and evaluated microscopically. Scores were assigned for total inflammation, degree of fibrosis, and collagen maturity. Generalized linear models were used to investigate the effect of treatment on each variable.
RESULTS Wound scores for laser-treated incisions were significantly better than scores for control incisions on day 2 but not at other time points. There were no significant differences in necrosis, fibroplasia, inflammation, granuloma formation, or bacterial contamination between control and treatment groups. Collagen maturity was significantly better for the laser-treated incisions on day 14.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laser treatment resulted in a significant increase in collagen maturity at day 14 but did not otherwise significantly improve healing of skin incisions.