To replicate a previously defined behavioral procedure to acclimate adult cats to temporary restriction in indirect calorimetry chambers and measure energy expenditure and respiratory quotient changes during acclimation.
8 healthy adult cats (4 spayed females, and 4 neutered males; mean ± SEM age, 2.5 ± 1.5 years; mean body weight, 4.8 ± 1.8 kg).
Cats underwent a 13-week incremental acclimation procedure whereby cats were acclimated to the chambers in their home environment (weeks 1 to 3), to the study room (weeks 4 to 6), and to increasing lengths of restriction within their home environment (weeks 7 to 8) and the chambers (weeks 9 to 13). Cat stress score, respiratory rate, fearfulness (assessed with a novel object test), energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were measured. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures mixed model.
Stress, based on cat stress scores, fearfulness, and respiration, peaked at weeks 4, 9, and 10 but returned to baseline levels by week 11. Energy expenditure and respiratory quotient peaked at weeks 10 and 11, respectively, but were reduced significantly by weeks 11 and 13, respectively. All cats returned to baseline by the end of the study and were deemed fully acclimated.
Changes in perceived stress level, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient at various stages of the acclimation procedure suggest that stress should be considered a significant variable in energy balance measurements when indirect calorimetry is used in cats. An incremental acclimation procedure should therefore be used to prepare cats for the temporary space restriction necessary for indirect calorimetry studies.
OBJECTIVE To quantify vitamin D3 (VitD3) concentrations in commercial dog foods and compare those concentrations with Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) recommendations and manufacturer-reported concentrations.
DESIGN Cross-sectional study.
SAMPLE 82 commercial dog foods.
PROCEDURES Samples of commercially available dog foods were obtained from owners of healthy dogs in the Guelph, ON, Canada, area and owners of dogs that were patients at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre's Mona Campbell Centre for Animal Cancer. For each food, the VitD3 concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and adherence to AAFCO and National Research Council recommendations was assessed. Analyzed VitD3 concentrations were compared with manufacturer-reported VitD3 concentrations and between wet and dry foods, among AAFCO nutritional adequacy statements (nutrient profiles vs feeding trials and adult maintenance vs all life stages), between foods sold only by veterinarians and those sold over the counter, and between small and large manufacturers.
RESULTS The analyzed VitD3 concentration was below both AAFCO and National Research Council recommendations for one sample and below the assay detection limit for another. Analyzed VitD3 concentrations did not differ significantly from manufacturer-reported VitD3 concentrations or between wet and dry foods, among foods with different AAFCO nutritional adequacy statements, between foods sold only by veterinarians and those sold over the counter, or between foods produced by small and large manufacturers.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that manufacturer-reported VitD3 concentrations were accurate and that dog owners can be confident that VitD3 intake is adequate for AAFCO-compliant commercial dog foods.
To examine the effect of 3 diet history questions on the amount and type of diet-related information gathered from pet owners and to assess whether diet-related information obtained with each question in person differed from information obtained with a diet history survey.
99 pet owners.
Participants' responses to 1 of 3 randomly selected diet history questions (“Tell me everything he [or she] eats throughout a day, starting first thing in the morning right through to the end of the day”; “What kind of food does she [or he] eat?”; or “What kind of foods does he [or she] eat?”) were recorded and coded for analysis. Participants completed a postinteraction diet history survey. Amount and type of diet-related information obtained were compared among responses to the 3 diet history questions and between the response to each question and the diet history survey.
The “Tell me…” question elicited a significantly higher total number of diet-related items (combined number of main diet, treat, human food, medication, and dietary supplement items) than did the “What kind of food…” or “What kind of foods…” questions. The diet history survey captured significantly more information than did the “What kind of food…” or “What kind of foods…” questions; there was little difference between results of the diet history survey and the “Tell me…” question, except that treats were more frequently disclosed on the survey.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings reinforced the value of using broad, open questions or requests that invite expansion from clients for gathering diet-related information.