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  • Author or Editor: Adriene Chernosky x
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Objective—To compare effects of medetomidine and xylazine hydrochloride on results of cystometry and micturition reflexes in healthy dogs and results of urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) in sedated and conscious dogs.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedures—Urodynamic testing was performed 6 times in each dog (3 times after administration of xylazine [1 mg/kg of body weight, IV] and 3 times after administration of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM). Before each episode of sedation, UPP was performed. Heart and respiratory rates and indirect blood pressures were recorded prior to and 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after injection of sedative. Cystometry measurements included threshold volume, threshold pressure, and tonus limb. The UPP measurements included maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP), functional profile length, and, in male dogs, plateau pressure.

Results—Mean MUCP was decreased markedly in xylazine- and medetomidine-sedated dogs. Xylazine and medetomidine also decreased plateau pressure in male dogs. The MUCP measurements were consistent among days for conscious and xylazine-sedated dogs but were inconsistent for medetomidinesedated female dogs. The proportion of valid cystometry measurements was greater for xylazine (39 of 60) than for medetomidine (27 of 60). Cystometry was considered invalid when bladder pressure reached 30 cm H2O without initiation of a micturition reflex.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomi dine and xylazine have similar effects on measurement of UPP and cystometry. Medetomidine was less consistent among days for UPP in female dogs and produced fewer valid cystometry tests, compared with xylazine. For urodynamic evaluations, medetomidine administered IM cannot be substituted for xylazine administered IV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:167–170)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize urodynamic function and anatomy before and after colposuspension in anesthetized female Beagles.

Animals—12 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—During general anesthesia (thiopental sodium induction and halothane maintenance), urethral pressure profiles, leak point pressure measurements with a 50-ml bladder volume, positive contrast cystograms, and retrograde vaginourethrocystograms were performed. A caudal midline laparotomy was used to perform colposuspension. Urodynamic and radiographic studies were repeated after surgery.

Results—Leak point pressures were increased (120 to 168.9 cm H2O), and maximum urethral closure pressures decreased (43.7 to 19.3 cm H2O ) after colposuspension. The urethra and bladder were moved cranially; the external urethral orifice was positioned closer to the pelvic cavity, and the neck of the bladder was positioned more cranially into the abdomen. Length of the urethra, as measured by use of vaginourethrocystograms, was increased by 3%. As measured by use of urethral pressure profiles, total profile length was increased by 19.9%, and functional profile length was increased by 19.2%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased leak-point pressure correlated with the expected clinical improvement attributable to colposuspension. Increased exposure of the urethra to abdominal and pelvic cavity pressures may be the mechanism by which incontinent dogs become continent after colposuspension. Results of the leak-point pressure test may correlate with clinical behavior before and after colposuspension for treatment of incontinence. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1353–1357)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To develop a stress leak point pressure (LPP) test for dogs, determine LPP for continent female dogs, and determine urethral pressure profile (UPP) values for nonanesthetized, continent female dogs.


22 continent female dogs weighing from 21 to 29 kg.


A standard UPP test and a modification of the LPP test used in women were performed on all dogs. On 3 occasions, dogs underwent UPP testing while awake. They then were anesthetized with propofol, and LPP was measured at bladder volumes of 75. 100, and 150 ml. For LPP tests, abdominal pressure was applied by inflating a human blood pressure cuff placed around the dog’s abdomen. LPP were recorded through a urethral catheter (bladder LPP) and a rectal balloon catheter (abdominal LPP).


Mean ± SD and median maximal urethral closure pressure was 110.1 ± 20.2 and 109.0 cm water, respectively. Mean bladder LPP for the 75, 100, and 150 ml bladder volumes was 172.4 cm water. Significant differences among LPP for the 3 bladder volumes were not detected.


Stress LPP can be recorded in female dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:676–678)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research