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Abstract

Objective—To describe myoelectric activity of the spiral colon in healthy cows.

Animals—7 lactating Simmental X Red-Holstein crossbred cows.

Procedure—Cows were implanted with 7 pairs of bipolar silver electrodes (4 in the spiral colon and 1 each in the cecum, distal part of the ileum, and proximal loop of the ascending colon [PLAC]). Myo-electric activity was recorded during 4 days for each cow. Patterns were analyzed, using computer-based methods.

Results—Myoelectric activity of the spiral colon was closely associated with motility of the ileum and PLAC and showed the typical organization of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC). The MMC in the bovine spiral colon (bcMMC) had a mean ± SD duration of 188.6 ± 30.8 minutes and was divided into 4 phases. Phases I and II lasted 11.3 ± 1.4 and 159.4 ± 33.3 minutes, respectively. Phase III (duration, 5.4 ± 1.2 minutes) was characterized by 5.2 ± 0.9 regular spindles (35.4 ± 5.4 seconds) and 1 final elongated spindle (137.2 ± 56.4 seconds). Phase III most commonly (73.8 ± 16.1%) was followed by phase IV (duration, 17.3 ± 3.6 minutes). Propagation velocity of phase III was 4.4 ± 0.5 cm/min, and 13.6% of bcMMC were incompletely propagated through the spiral colon.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Myoelectric activity of the bovine spiral colon is composed of a recurring cyclic pattern similar to MMC of the small intestine. Data of colonic myoelectric activity in healthy cows will serve as a basis for studies on cecal dilatation and dislocation in cattle. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:78–93)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effect of xylazine, cisapride, and naloxone on myoelectric activity of the ileum, cecum, and proximal loop of the ascending colon (plac) was determined in 4 healthy Jersey cows implanted with 8 pairs of bipolar electrodes. A 4 × 4 Latin square design was used. The treatments included xylazine (0.04 mg/kg of body weight), cisapride (0.08 mg/kg), naloxone (0.05 mg/kg), and 0.9% sodium chloride solution (20 ml). All treatments were administered IV during early phase I of the migrating myoelectric complex in the ileum. Myoelectric activity was recorded for 4 hours after treatment, and data were analyzed for each hour separately.

Xylazine significantly (P < 0.05) increased the duration of phase I of the first migrating myoelectric complex in the ileum to 220.72 ± 26.89 minutes, compared with 30.91 ± 10.11 minutes after administration of 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The number of cecocolic spikes per minute per electrode and the duration of cecocolic spike activity (percentage of recording time) were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for the first 3 hours, and the number of propagated spike sequences in the cecum and PLAC was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for the first 2 hours after administration of xylazine. Significant difference was not found between control and either cisapride or naloxone treatment of healthy cows. However, during hour 1 after treatment with cisapride, number of spikes per minute, duration of spike activity, and number of propagated spike sequences were highest, compared with the other treatments.

It was concluded that naloxone at the dosage used in this study was not suitable for medical treatment of cecal dilatation in cattle, when hypomotility of the cecum and PLAC must be reversed. Xylazine should not be used for relief of signs of pain in cases of cecal dilatation, because it significantly reduced myo electric activity of the cecum and PLAC for at least 2 hours after treatment. Furthermore, results of this study indicated a trend (P > 0.05) toward increase of cecocolic myoelectric activity after administration of cisapride. It is the authors’ opinion that the potential benefit of cisapride for medical treatment of cecal dilatation in cattle needs further evaluation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effect of bethanechol, neostigmine, metoclopramide, and propranolol on myoelectric activity of the ileum, cecum, and proximal loop of the ascending colon was determined in 6 healthy Jersey cows implanted with 8 pairs of bipolar electrodes. Assigned at random, each cow received each of 5 treatments in 3-day intervals. The treatments included bethanechol (0.07 mg/kg of body weight, sc), neostigmine (0.02 mg/kg, sc), metoclopramide (0.15 mg/kg, im), dl-propranolol (0.2 mg/kg, im), and 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution (20 ml, sc). All drugs were administered during early phase I of the migrating myoelectric complex in the ileum. Myoelectric activity was recorded for 4 hours after treatment, and data were analyzed for each hour separately.

Bethanechol and neostigmine significantly (P < 0.05) increased the number of cecocolic spikes per minute per electrode, duration of cecocolic spike activity (%), and number of cecocolic propagated spike sequences per 10 minutes, relative to NaCl, during 1 or more hours of the recording period. The effect of bethanechol was more pronounced on duration of spike activity and number of propagated spike sequences, whereas neostigmine mainly increased the number of (uncoordinated) spikes. Metoclopramide and propranolol had no significant effect on cecocolic myoelectric activity, relative to NaCl.

It was concluded that bethanechol and, less likely, neostigmine at the dosage used in this study may be suitable for medical treatment of cecal dilatation in cattle in which hypomotility of the cecum and proximal loop of the ascending colon has to be reversed. The potential advantage of bethanechol vs neostigmine for medical treatment of cecal dilatation is worth further evaluation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate local tissue compatibility of doxycycline hyclate (DOX) in antebrachiocarpal joints of calves.

Animals—10 healthy calves between 80 and 110 kg.

Procedures—Calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups. Calves in groups DOX low and DOX high were administered 5 and 10 mg of DOX, respectively, locally in 1 antebrachiocarpal joint. The contralateral joint served as a control joint and was injected with 0.9% NaCl solution. General and local clinical findings were scored. Several variables were assessed in blood and synovial fluid for 9 days. Calves were euthanatized and pathologic changes and drug residues evaluated.

Results—Throughout the study, none of the calves had clinical changes or abnormal hematologic values. Significant differences between treatment and control joints were evident only for matrix metalloproteinases at 0.5 hours after injection, with less activity for the DOX-treated joints in both treatment groups. Values for all synovial fluid variables, except nitric oxide, increased significantly during the first 12 to 72 hours after arthrocentesis in control and DOX-treated joints. Histologic examination revealed minimal infiltration of inflammatory cells independent of the treatment. No drug residues were detected 9 days after arthrocentesis in any tissues obtained from the liver, kidneys, fat, and skeletal muscles.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DOX had excellent intra-articular compatibility in healthy calves. Arthrocentesis induced a mild transient increase of inflammatory mediators in the synovial fluid. Significant decreases in matrix metalloproteinase activity in DOX-treated joints may indicate a potential chondroprotective effect of DOX.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe myoelectric patterns in the intestines of cows after electrode implantation.

Animals—7 lactating Simmental-Red Holstein cows.

Procedure—Cows were implanted with 7 pairs of bipolar silver electrodes (1 each in the ileum, cecum, and proximal loop of the ascending colon (PLAC) and 4 in the spiral colon). Myoelectric activity was monitored during 10 periods within the first 3 weeks after surgery. Recordings from the first 2 weeks were compared with recordings from the third week, which was considered a steady-state condition.

Results—Significant changes over time were detected for 18 of 57 variables, including 3 variables describing myoelectric activity of the ileum, 6 variables of the cecum, 6 variables of the PLAC, and 3 variables of the spiral colon. Compared with values for the steadystate condition, 16 variables differed significantly for the 14-day period after surgery (7 variables until day 11, 2 variables until day 8, 4 variables until day 5, 1 variable until day 3, and 2 variables until day 2 after electrode implantation). None of the variables had significant changes that lasted only 1 day after surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant changes were observed for several variables of myoelectric activity in all intestinal segments until as late as 11 days after electrode implantation, whereas a steady-state condition was reached 14 days after surgery. Effects of drugs, manipulations, or nutrition regimens on myoelectric activity of the bovine digestive tract should be evaluated no sooner than 2 weeks after electrode implantation. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:797–805)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To analyze myoelectric activity of the cecum and proximal loop of the ascending colon (PLAC) in cows after spontaneous cecal dilatation/dislocation (CDD) and compare it with that in healthy cows after surgical evacuation of the cecum.

Animals

12 cows with spontaneous CDD and 6 healthy cows (group C). Cows with spontaneous CDD were retrospectively assigned to 2 groups: delayed recovery from surgery or recurrence (group A; n = 3), and normal recovery (group B; n = 9).

Procedure

After surgical evacuation of the cecum, 8 pairs of bipolar, retrievable electrodes were implanted in the ileum, cecum, and PLAC. Cows were evaluated daily from postoperative day 1 to 7, using routine clinical methods and computer-based analysis of myoelectric activity of the cecum and PLAC. Parameters of myoelectric activity included rate of spike bursts, duration of individual spike bursts, duration of overall spike burst activity per electrode, rate of propagated spike burst sequences, and ratio of orally propagated spike burst sequences.

Results

Rate of spike bursts, duration of cecocolic spike burst activity, and ratio of orally to aborally propagated spike burst sequences did not vary among groups during the 7-day recording period. However, cows with delayed recovery had a typical, uniform pattern of myoelectric activity of the cecum and PLAC at days 1 and 2 after surgery that consisted of repeated, propagated spike burst sequences, made up of spike bursts of significantly (P < 0.05) increased duration at postsurgical day 1 and substantially prolonged duration at postsurgical day 2, interrupted by periods of little or no activity.

Conclusion

Delayed recovery and recurrence of CDD in cows after spontaneous CDD is not caused by hypomotility of the cecum and PLAC.

Clinical Relevance

Postoperative treatment, intended to reduce recurrence of CDD or delayed recovery after surgical evacuation of the cecum, should address propagation of digesta in the spiral colon. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:961–968)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Six Jersey cows were implanted with 8 pairs of bipolar electrodes: 1 in the jejunum, 1 in the ileum, 3 in the cecum, and 3 in the proximal loop of the ascending colon (plac). Myoelectric activity was recorded at 2- to 3-day intervals, 3 times for 8 hours or 4 times for 6 hours, using a computer-based oscillograph and data-acquisition program.

Mean (± sd) duration of the migrating myoelectric complex (mmc) in the ileum was 84.52 ± 4.87 minutes. Phases I and II of the mmc lasted significantly (P < 0.05) longer than phase III. Two types (A and B) of cyclic activity were found in the cecum and plac. Cyclic activity type A was observed predominantly in the cecum, and type B was observed exclusively in the plac. Phase III of the mmc in the ileum was accompanied by hyperactivity type A at the level of the ileocecocolic junction in 60.90 ± 12.65% of the mmc. Twenty-seven types of orally and aborally propagated spike sequences, involving the cecum and plac, were found. They were most frequent when an mmc phase III was observed in the ileum, and least frequent when an mmc phase I was observed in the ileum (P < 0.05). All electrode sites of the cecum and plac served as pacemaker areas. Propagated and nonpropagated spikes were found at all electrode sites of the cecum and plac. Although propagated spikes lasted significantly (P < 0.05) longer than nonpropagated spikes, a clear distinction on the basis of duration could not be defined between the 2 spike types because broad overlapping of duration existed. Duration of cecocolic spiking activity per electrode (expressed as percentage of time) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater during mmc phase III in the ileum than during mmc phase I.

It can be concluded that myoelectric activity of the cecum is well coordinated with the ileum and the plac. Phases of reduced and increased myoelectric activity in the cecum and plac are simultaneous with phases I and III of the mmc in the ileum.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize and compare in vitro contractility patterns of sections of abomasal wall harvested from cattle of 3 dairy breeds.

Sample Population—Longitudinal and circular smooth muscle preparations harvested from the antrum and body of the abomasum of 30 recently slaughtered Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, and Simmental X Red Holstein cows.

Procedure—Spontaneous isometric contractions of specimens in tissue baths of modified Krebs solution were recorded during a 4-hour period. Maximal amplitude, frequency of contractions, and change of basal tension were used to characterize contractility. Statistical analyses were used to test for differences among time periods, among breeds, between specimen locations, and between fiber orientations.

Results—Myoactivity patterns of abomasal smooth muscle preparations are highly variable and differ on the basis of location and fiber orientation. Frequency of contractions differed significantly among time periods for longitudinally oriented specimens with decreasing frequencies of contractions over time. Maximal amplitude of the longitudinally oriented specimens from the antrum increased significantly, whereas maximal amplitude of the circularly oriented specimens from the antrum decreased significantly. Values did not differ significantly among breeds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Patterns of spontaneous contractility of abomasal wall specimens are not homogeneous. During a 4-hour recording period, maximal amplitude and frequency of contractions of specimens varied significantly with respect to orientation and location; however, spontaneous contractile myoactivity did not differ significantly among breeds. Therefore, breed predisposition for displaced abomasum is not correlated with spontaneous activity of smooth muscle specimens. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1687–1694)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research