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  • Author or Editor: Adrian M. Solano x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe the effects of changes in circuit volume and oxygen inflow rate on inspired oxygen concentration for a large animal circle anesthetic system.

Study Population—A large animal circle anesthetic system, a 10 L/min flowmeter, and 20- and 40-L breathing bags.

Procedure—Circuit volume was determined by a carbon dioxide dilution technique. Oxygen flow rates of 3, 6, and 10 L/min were delivered to the circuit with the large breathing bag, and a flow rate of 6 L/min was used with the small bag. Gas samples were collected during a 20-minute period. The time constant (τ) and half-time (T1/2) were calculated and compared with measured values.

Results—Mean ± SEM volume of the breathing circuit with a 20- and 40-L breathing bag was 32.97 ± 0.91 L and 49.26 ± 0.58 L, respectively. The from measurements was 11.97, 6.10, and 3.60 minutes at oxygen flow rates of 3, 6, and 10 L/min, respectively, for the large breathing bag and 3.73 minutes at a flow rate of 6 L/min for the small breathing bag. The T1/2 was 8.29, 4.22, and 2.49 minutes at oxygen flow rates of 3, 6, and 10 L/min, respectively, for the large breathing bag and 2.58 minutes for the small breathing bag.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study emphasizes that there are delays in the rate of increase in the inspired oxygen concentration that accompany use of conventional large animal circle anesthetic systems and low rates of inflow for fresh oxygen. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1675–1678)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of 6 plasma ketamine concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs.

Animals—6 dogs.

Procedure—In experiment 1, the MAC of isoflurane was measured in each dog and the pharmacokinetics of ketamine were determined in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs after IV administration of a bolus (3 mg/kg) of ketamine. In experiment 2, the same dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. A target-controlled IV infusion device was used to administer ketamine and to achieve plasma ketamine concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 μg/mL by use of parameters obtained from experiment 1. The MAC of isoflurane was determined at each plasma ketamine concentration, and blood samples were collected for ketamine and norketamine concentration determination.

Results—Actual mean ± SD plasma ketamine concentrations were 1.07 ± 0.42 μg/mL, 1.62 ± 0.98 μg/mL, 3.32 ± 0.59 μg/mL, 4.92 ± 2.64 μg/mL, 13.03 ± 10.49 μg/mL, and 22.80 ± 25.56 μg/mL for target plasma concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 μg/mL, respectively. At these plasma concentrations, isoflurane MAC was reduced by 10.89% to 39.48%, 26.77% to 43.74%, 25.24% to 84.89%, 44.34% to 78.16%, 69.62% to 92.31%, and 71.97% to 95.42%, respectively. The reduction in isoflurane MAC was significant, and the response had a linear and quadratic component. Salivation, regurgitation, mydriasis, increased body temperature, and spontaneous movements were some of the adverse effects associated with the high plasma ketamine concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketamine appears to have a potential role for balanced anesthesia in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2006;67:21–25)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the effects of ketamine administration on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and on acid-base balance and to record adverse effects of ketamine in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy adult mongrel dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane (1.25 times the individual minimum alveolar concentration) in oxygen, and ketamine was administered IV to target pseudo–steady-state plasma concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, and 11 µg/mL. Isoflurane concentration was reduced to an equipotent concentration. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and acid-base variables; body temperature; urine production; and adverse effects were recorded before and during noxious stimulation. Cardiac index, stroke index, rate-pressure product, systemic vascular resistance index, pulmonary vascular resistance index, left ventricular stroke work index, right ventricular stroke work index, arterial oxygen concentration, mixed-venous oxygen concentration, oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption, oxygen extraction ratio, alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure gradient, and venous admixture were calculated. Plasma ketamine and norketamine concentrations were measured.

Results—Overall, ketamine administration improved ventilation, oxygenation, hemodynamics, and oxygen delivery in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs in a dosedependent manner. With the addition of ketamine, core body temperature was maintained or increased and urine production was maintained at an acceptable amount. However, at the higher plasma ketamine concentrations, adverse effects such as spontaneous movement and profuse salivation were observed. Myoclonus and dysphoria were observed during recovery in most dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusion of ketamine appears to be a suitable technique for balanced anesthesia with isoflurane in dogs. Plasma ketamine concentrations between 2 to 3 µg/mL elicited the most benefits with minimal adverse effects. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2122–2129)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether withholding of food affects autonomic nervous system balance by analysis of heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and frequency of second-degree atrioventricular block in horses.

Animals—5 healthy Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—For two 24-hour periods in a crossover study, food was withheld from horses or horses were maintained on their regular feeding schedule (control conditions) in their stalls and Holter monitor ECG recordings were obtained. The ECGs were analyzed by use of fast-Fourier transformation, and power spectrum densities were calculated for low-frequency (0.01 to 0.07 Hz) and high-frequency (0.07 to 0.6 Hz) variations in HR. Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH, norepinephrine, and glucose concentrations were measured at predetermined time points.

Results—Withholding of food resulted in significantly lower HR and more frequent second-degree atrioventricular block (the frequency of which was inversely related to the HR), compared with findings for control conditions. Circadian rhythms were similar during food-withholding and control conditions; peak HR was detected from 7:00 pm to 8:00 pm, and the lowest HR was detected in the early morning. During food-withholding conditions, the low-frequency and high-frequency components of HRV were significantly higher, and the low-frequency-to-high-frequency ratio was lower than during control conditions. Serum cortisol concentration was higher and plasma glucose concentration was lower at 6:00 pm in horses when food was withheld, compared with findings during control conditions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Indices of HRV seemed to be sensitive to changes in autonomic nervous activity and may be useful as clinical indices of the neuroendocrine response to stressors in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Animals—6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks.

Procedures—A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco 2 measured every 5 minutes plus Paco 2 and Pao 2 and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period.

Results—Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco 2 differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco 2 position × time interaction was significant and Petco 2 was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco 2. The Paco 2 in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao 2, suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O2 transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research