OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of mechanical ventilation (MV) and perfusion conditions on the efficacy of pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) in anesthetized horses.
ANIMALS 27 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Anesthetized horses were allocated into 4 groups: spontaneous breathing (SB) with low (< 70 mm Hg) mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; group SB-L; n = 7), SB with physiologically normal (≥ 70 mm Hg) MAP (group SB-N; 8), MV with low MAP (group MV-L; 6), and MV with physiologically normal MAP (group MV-N; 6). Dobutamine was used to maintain MAP > 70 mm Hg. Data were collected after a 60-minute equilibration period and at 15 and 30 minutes during PiNO administration. Variables included Pao2, arterial oxygen saturation and content, oxygen delivery, and physiologic dead space-to-tidal volume ratio. Data were analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney U, and Friedman ANOVA tests.
RESULTS Pao2, arterial oxygen saturation, arterial oxygen content, and oxygen delivery increased significantly with PiNO in the SB-L, SB-N, and MV-N groups; were significantly lower in group MV-L than in group MV-N; and were lower in MV-N than in both SB groups during PiNO. Physiologic dead space-to-tidal volume ratio was highest in the MV-L group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pulmonary perfusion impacted PiNO efficacy during MV but not during SB. Use of PiNO failed to increase oxygenation in the MV-L group, likely because of profound ventilation-perfusion mismatching. During SB, PiNO improved oxygenation irrespective of the magnitude of blood flow, but hypoventilation and hypercarbia persisted. Use of PiNO was most effective in horses with adequate perfusion.
To develop a method based on CT angiography and the maximum slope model (MSM) to measure regional lung perfusion in anesthetized ponies.
Anesthetized ponies were positioned in dorsal recumbency in the CT gantry. Contrast was injected, and the lungs were imaged while ponies were breathing spontaneously and while they were mechanically ventilated. Two observers delineated regions of interest in aerated and atelectatic lung, and perfusion in those regions was calculated with the MSM. Measurements obtained with a computerized method were compared with manual measurements, and computerized measurements were compared with previously reported measurements obtained with microspheres.
Perfusion measurements obtained with the MSM were similar to previously reported values obtained with the microsphere method. While ponies were spontaneously breathing, mean ± SD perfusion for aerated and atelectatic lung regions were 4.0 ± 1.9 and 5.0 ± 1.2 mL/min/g of lung tissue, respectively. During mechanical ventilation, values were 4.6 ± 1.2 and 2.7 ± 0.7 mL/min/g of lung tissue at end expiration and 4.1 ± 0.5 and 2.7 ± 0.6 mL/min/g of lung tissue at peak inspiration. Intraobserver agreement was acceptable, but interobserver agreement was lower. Computerized measurements compared well with manual measurements.
Findings showed that CT angiography and the MSM could be used to measure regional lung perfusion in dorsally recumbent anesthetized ponies. Measurements are repeatable, suggesting that the method could be used to determine efficacy of therapeutic interventions to improve ventilation-perfusion matching and for other studies for which measurement of regional lung perfusion is necessary.
To measure changes in pulmonary perfusion during pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) delivery in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated ponies positioned in dorsal recumbency.
6 adult ponies.
Ponies were anesthetized, positioned in dorsal recumbency in a CT gantry, and allowed to breathe spontaneously. Pulmonary artery, right atrial, and facial artery catheters were placed. Analysis time points were baseline, after 30 minutes of PiNO, and 30 minutes after discontinuation of PiNO. At each time point, iodinated contrast medium was injected, and CT angiography was used to measure pulmonary perfusion. Thermodilution was used to measure cardiac output, and arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected simultaneously and analyzed. Analyses were repeated while ponies were mechanically ventilated.
During PiNO delivery, perfusion to aerated lung regions increased, perfusion to atelectatic lung regions decreased, arterial partial pressure of oxygen increased, and venous admixture and the alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen decreased. Changes in regional perfusion during PiNO delivery were more pronounced when ponies were spontaneously breathing than when they were mechanically ventilated.
In anesthetized, dorsally recumbent ponies, PiNO delivery resulted in redistribution of pulmonary perfusion from dependent, atelectatic lung regions to nondependent aerated lung regions, leading to improvements in oxygenation. PiNO may offer a treatment option for impaired oxygenation induced by recumbency.
To determine factors associated with change in rectal temperature (RT) of dogs undergoing anesthesia.
In a prospective observational study, the RT of dogs undergoing anesthesia at 5 veterinary hospitals was recorded at the time of induction of anesthesia and at the time of recovery from anesthesia (ie, at the time of extubation). Demographic data, body condition score, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, types of procedure performed and medications administered, duration of anesthesia, and use of heat support were also recorded. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine factors that were significantly associated with a decrease or an increase (or no change) in RT. Odds ratios were calculated for factors significantly associated with a decrease in RT.
Among the 507 dogs undergoing anesthesia, RT decreased in 89% (median decrease, −1.2°C [-2.2°F]; range, −0.1°C to −5.7°C [–0.2°F to −10.3°F]), increased in 9% (median increase, 0.65°C [1.2°F]; range, 0.1°C to 2.1°C [3.8°F]), and did not change in 2%. Factors that significantly predicted and increased the odds of a decrease in RT included lower weight, ASA classification > 2, surgery for orthopedic or neurologic disease, MRI procedures, use of an α2-adrenergic or μ-opioid receptor agonist, longer duration of anesthesia, and higher heat loss rate. Lack of μ-opioid receptor agonist use, shorter duration of anesthesia, and lower heat loss rate were significantly associated with an increase in RT.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Multiple factors that were associated with a decrease in RT in dogs undergoing anesthesia were identified. Knowledge of these factors may help identify dogs at greater risk of developing inadvertent perianesthetic hypothermia.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate cardiopulmonary, sedative, and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine combined with commonly administered opioids in dogs.
ANIMALS 8 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were sedated by IM administration of each of 7 treatments. Treatments comprised dexmedetomidine (0.01 mg/kg; Dex) and the same dose of dexmedetomidine plus butorphanol (0.15 mg/kg; Dex-But), meperidine (5 mg/kg; Dex-Mep), methadone (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Meth), morphine (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Mor), nalbuphine (0.5 mg/kg; Dex-Nal), or tramadol (5 mg/kg; Dex-Tram). Cardiorespiratory and arterial blood gas variables and sedative and antinociceptive scores were measured before drug injection (time 0; baseline) and at 15-minute intervals for 120 minutes.
RESULTS Heart rate was reduced at all time points after injection of Dex-But, Dex-Mep, Dex-Meth, and Dex-Mor treatments. There was a significant reduction of mean arterial blood pressure for Dex-But, Dex-Mep, and Dex-Mor treatments at all time points, compared with baseline. There was a significant decrease in respiratory rate, compared with the baseline value, for Dex, Dex-But, Dex-Meth, and Dex-Tram treatments from 15 to 120 minutes. A significant decrease in arterial blood pH was detected from baseline to 120 minutes for all treatments, with differences among Dex, Dex-Mep, and Dex-Mor. Reduction in Pao2 was greater for the Dex-Mep treatment than for the other treatments. The highest sedation scores were detected for Dex-Mep and Dex-Meth treatments. Antinociceptive effects were superior for Dex-But, Dex-Meth, Dex-Mor, and Dex-Nal treatments.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Drug combinations caused similar cardiorespiratory changes, with greater sedative effects for Dex-Mep and Dex-Meth and superior antinociceptive effects for Dex-But, Dex-Meth, Dex-Mor, and Dex-Nal.