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  • Author or Editor: Abigail E. Stevenson x
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Objective—To compare urine composition in Labrador Retrievers (LR) and Miniature Schnauzers (MS) fed the same dog food.

Animals—8 healthy LR (mean [± SD] age, 3.1 ± 1.7 years) and 8 healthy MS (mean age, 3.7 ± 1.3 years).

Procedure—A nutritionally complete dry dog food was fed to the dogs for 24 days. Urinary pH, volume, specific gravity, frequency of urination, and urinary concentrations of 12 analytes were measured for each dog; urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with calcium oxalate and brushite (calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate) were calculated from these values.

Results—MS urinated significantly less often and had a lower urine volume (ml/kg of body weight per d) and a significantly higher urine pH, compared with LR. Urinary calcium concentration and brushite RSS were significantly higher in the urine of MS. As a result of a high calorie requirement, primarily as a result of high surface area to volume ratio, MS had significantly higher intake (per kg body weight) of dietary minerals, compared with LR.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in urine composition exist between breeds fed the same diet, some of which, including lower urine volume, higher calcium concentration, and higher brushite RSS, may contribute to the high prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths observed in MS. Differences between breeds should be considered when evaluating strategies for controlling calcium oxalate stone formation. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1782–1786)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the effect of dietary potassium citrate supplementation on the urinary pH, relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and struvite (defined as the activity product/solubility product of the substance), and concentrations of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate, citrate, calcium, and oxalate in dogs.

Animals—12 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Canned dog food was fed to dogs for 37 days. Dogs were randomly allocated to 3 groups and fed test diets for a period of 8 days. Study periods were separated by 6-day intervals. During each study period the dogs were fed either standard diet solus (control) or standard diet plus 1 of 2 types of potassium citrate supplements (150 mg potassium citrate/kg of body weight/d) twice daily. Urinary pH, volume and specific gravity, relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate and struvite, and concentrations of magnesium, ammonium, phosphate, calcium, oxalate, and citrate were assessed for each treatment.

Results—Mean urine pH was not significantly affected by dietary potassium citrate supplementation, although urine pH did increase by 0.2 pH units with supplementation. Diets containing potassium citrate maintained a higher urine pH for a longer part of the day than control diet. Three Miniature Schnauzers had a significantly lower urinary relative calcium oxalate supersaturation when fed a diet supplemented with potassium citrate, compared with control diet.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary potassium citrate supplementation has limited effects on urinary variables in most healthy dogs, although supplementation results in maintenance of a higher urine pH later in the day. Consequently, if supplementation is introduced, dogs should be fed twice daily and potassium citrate should be given with both meals or with the evening meal only. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:430–435)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research