To evaluate the effects of a single dose of orally administered gabapentin in alleviating stress at a veterinary visit in privately owned dogs.
22 healthy client-owned dogs (1.5 to 8.5 years old) were enrolled in this study.
Each dog received a 50-mg/kg oral dose of either gabapentin or placebo 2 hours before the beginning of each visit protocol. The dog’s behavioral responses were coded from recorded video clips during a 5-minute-long standardized physical examination and pre– and post–physical examination phases. The veterinary technician separately rated each greeting behavior at each visit. Physiological variables during veterinary visits (ie, eye surface temperature and salivary cortisol concentrations) were also compared between the pre– and post–physical examination phases. The owner was queried 24 hours after a visit to determine the incidence of adverse events.
The greeting test score, eye surface temperature, and cortisol concentrations did not differ substantially between the gabapentin and placebo treatment groups. Lip licking frequency during the physical examination phase was significantly lower in the gabapentin treatment group than in the placebo group (P = 0.001). Lip licking frequency during the pre– and post–physical examination phases was also significantly lower in the gabapentin treatment group than in the placebo treatment group (P = 0.004). No serious adverse events were reported by the owners following gabapentin treatment.
Results showed that the 50-mg/kg dose of gabapentin was well tolerated without serious adverse effects in healthy dogs. Further studies are recommended of dogs with documented stress in response to a veterinary visit.
To investigate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3)–derived proresolving lipid mediators (PRLM) in the resolution of mild airway inflammation in horses.
20 horses with mild airway inflammation.
Horses previously eating hay were fed hay pellets (low Ω-3 content; n = 10) or haylage (high Ω-3 content; 9) for 6 weeks. Dust exposure was measured in the breathing zone with a real-time particulate monitor. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed at baseline, week 3, and week 6. The effect of PRLM on neutrophil apoptosis and efferocytosis was examined in vitro. BAL fluid inflammatory cell proportions, apoptosis of circulating neutrophils, efferocytosis displayed by alveolar macrophages, and plasma lipid concentrations were compared between groups fed low and high amounts of Ω-3 by use of repeated measures of generalized linear models.
Dust exposure was significantly higher with hay feeding, compared to haylage and pellets, and equivalent between haylage and pellets. BAL fluid neutrophil proportions decreased significantly in horses fed haylage (baseline, 11.8 ± 2.4%; week 6, 2.5 ± 1.1%) but not pellets (baseline, 12.1 ± 2.3%; week 6, 8.5% ± 1.7%). At week 6, horses eating haylage had significantly lower BAL neutrophil proportions than those eating pellets, and a significantly lower concentration of stearic acid than at baseline. PRLM treatments did not affect neutrophil apoptosis or efferocytosis.
Despite similar reduction in dust exposure, horses fed haylage displayed greater resolution of airway inflammation than those fed pellets. This improvement was not associated with increased plasma Ω-3 concentrations. Feeding haylage improves airway inflammation beyond that due to reduced dust exposure, though the mechanism remains unclear.