Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 1 of 1 items for

  • Author or Editor: Abdul Kabir x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search



Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease in ruminants that causes significant economic losses worldwide. However, the prevalence of FMD virus (FMDV) in small ruminants has been overlooked in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FMD in sheep and goats in the border area between Pakistan and Afghanistan.


800 sheep and goats belongs to age groups of 6 month to > 2 years.


A total of 800 serum samples were collected from sheep (n = 424) and goats (n = 376) and subjected to structural protein (SP) and 3ABC non-SP (NSP) ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against SP and NSP of the FMDV.


For NSP, 340/800 (42.5%) of samples were positive, while SP analysis revealed that serotype O (44.5%) was the most common in sheep and goats, followed by Asia-1 (42%) and A (32%) serotypes. Sheep (39%; 95% CI, 34 to 44) had a higher (P < .05) prevalence of FMD than goats (46%; 95% CI, 41 to 51). Statistically significant (P < .05) differences in the seroprevalence of FMD-SP and FMD-NSPs were observed between various agencies (areas) of the study area. Risk factors such as age, sex, breed, season, flock size, body condition, animal movement, and production system were significantly (P < .05) associated with FMDV prevalence.


This study showed that FMD is highly prevalent in sheep and goats in the border areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Therefore, outbreak investigation teams should be arranged at the border level to develop FMD risk-based surveillance and control plans for small ruminants in order to mitigate infection risks.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research