Objective—To evaluate the outcome of the application of an external skeletal fixator intramedullary pin tie-in (TIF) to tibiotarsal fractures in raptors.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—Thirty-four raptors with 37 tibiotarsal fractures.
Procedures—Medical records and radiographs for raptors with tibiotarsal fractures that were treated at The Raptor Center at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2011 were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were generated and univariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether age, sex, body weight, location and nature of the fracture, and type of surgical reduction were significantly associated with whether the fracture healed following surgical reduction and TIF application.
Results—31 of 37 (84%) tibiotarsal fractures successfully healed following surgical reduction and TIF application. The mean healing time was 38 days (range, 15 to 70 days). None of the variables assessed were significantly associated with whether the tibiotarsal fracture healed. Twenty of the 34 (59%) raptors were eventually rehabilitated and released.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that most tibiotarsal fractures were successfully managed by surgical reduction and stabilization with a TIF. However, other comorbidities (eg, systemic infections and visual deficits) negatively affected the rehabilitation of raptors and sometimes resulted in euthanasia despite the fact that the tibiotarsal fracture had healed, and those comorbidities, along with the variables evaluated (eg, age, sex, and nature of the fracture), should be used as triage criteria and prognostic indicators.
To identify physical examination and perioperative CBC variables in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) that could aid in predicting progression-free interval (PFI) and overall survival time (OST) in affected dogs.
70 client-owned dogs with splenic HSA treated with splenectomy and chemotherapy between September 2004 and October 2016.
A retrospective search of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center medical records database was performed to identify dogs with splenic HSA treated with splenectomy and with evidence in the medical records of intent to treat with chemotherapy. Data collection included dog signalment and body surface area, results from CBCs performed within 6 days before to 2 days after splenectomy, whether dogs had hemoabdomen or received transfusions, and tumor stage. Hematocrit, WBC count, and platelet count were treated as categorical variables (divided into terciles: above, within, or below reference limits) because of variation among reference intervals for the numerous analyzers used. Associations between variables and PFI or OST were investigated with Cox regression analyses, and hazard ratios (HRs) for a shorter PFI or OST were reported. Population Pearson correlation coefficient (ρ) analysis was performed to identify potential associations between variables of interest.
Stage 3 HSA was identified as a negative prognostic indicator of PFI (HR, 6.6) and OST (HR, 4.5). Perioperative thrombocytopenia was similarly associated with shorter PFI (HR, 2.2) and OST (HR, 2.0). Results for Hct correlated (ρ = 0.58) with those for platelet count, and although our findings did not indicate a notable association between anemia and shorter PFI, such could not be ruled out.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The prognostic value of thrombocytopenia warrants further substantiation to understand causal and mechanistic connections, and the presence of thrombocytopenia ultimately may prove valuable in guiding treatment recommendations for dogs with splenic HSA.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a method for identifying intact and degranulated eosinophils in the small intestine of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by use of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against eosinophil peroxidase (EPX).
ANIMALS 11 untreated dogs with IBD, 5 dogs with IBD treated with prednisolone, and 8 control dogs with no clinical evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease and no immunosuppressive treatment.
PROCEDURES 4-μm-thick sections of paraffin-embedded tissues from necropsy specimens were immunostained with EPX mAb. Stained intact and degranulated eosinophils in consecutive microscopic fields (400X magnification) of the upper (villus tips) and lower (between the muscularis mucosae and crypts) regions of the lamina propria of the jejunum were manually counted.
RESULTS Compared with control and treated IBD dogs, untreated IBD dogs had a significantly higher number of degranulated eosinophils in the lower region of the lamina propria. However, no significant differences were detected in the number of intact eosinophils in this region among groups. In the upper region of the lamina propria, untreated IBD dogs had a significantly higher number of degranulated and intact eosinophils, compared with control and treated IBD dogs. Number of degranulated and intact eosinophils did not differ significantly between control and treated IBD dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Immunohistologic analysis with EPX mAb yielded prominent granule staining that allowed reliable morphological identification of degranulated and intact eosinophils, which may provide a strategy for quantitative and selective evaluation of eosinophils in gastrointestinal biopsy specimens and a potential method to diagnose IBD and evaluate treatment outcome.
To determine if dogs with neoplasia produce more coated platelets, a subpopulation of activated platelets generated by dual stimulation with thrombin and convulxin, a glycoprotein VI agonist, than healthy control dogs.
Client-owned dogs diagnosed with lymphoma (n = 19) or solid tumors (14) and healthy control dogs (14).
Platelets were stimulated ex vivo with thrombin and convulxin. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the percentage of coated platelets based on high levels of surface fibrinogen. To compare the percentage of coated platelets between the three groups, an ANOVA was performed followed by pairwise 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey’s method.
We observed a greater mean percentage of coated platelets in dogs with solid tumors, compared with healthy control dogs, by 10.9 percentage points (95% CI: −1.0, 22.8), and a mean percentage of coated platelets in dogs with lymphoma that was less than healthy control dogs by 0.3 percentage points (95% CI: −11.4, 10.8).
This study provides the first data-based evidence that dogs with solid tumors may have a greater mean coated platelet percentage when compared with healthy control dogs, although there is overlap between groups. Further studies are needed investigating coated platelets in specific subsets of neoplasia and investigating additional mechanisms of hypercoagulability in dogs with neoplasia.