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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Intraocular pressure (iop) was measured, using applanation tonometry, in both eyes of 20 horses after topical application of 0.5% proparacaine to the cornea. Ultrasonic pachymetry was used to measure central, mid-peripheral, and peripheral corneal thickness (ct) in all 4 quadrants of both eyes of 25 horses. All measurements were repeated after auriculopalpebral nerve block, sedation by iv administration of xylazine, or combination of nerve block and sedation. Mean iop after topical anesthesia of the cornea was 20.6 ± 4.7 mm of Hg for the left eye and 20.35 ± 3.7 mm of Hg for the right eye. Mean central ct was 793.2 ± 42.3 μm. The peripheral part of the cornea was significantly (P < 0.05) thicker, on average, than the central part of the cornea. Auriculopalpebral nerve block had no significant effect on iop or ct. Intravenous administration of xylazine resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in iop, but had no effect on ct.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Records of 147 dogs with cataracts and that had an ultrasonographic examination of their eyes were reviewed. Ultrasonography was performed, using a real-time mechanical sector scanner (7.5 or 10.0 MHz transducer), after topical anesthesia of the cornea. Vitreous degeneration was diagnosed in 23% of the eyes examined. Retinal detachment was detected in 11% of all eyes, but was detected in 4% of eyes with immature cataracts, 6.5% of eyes with mature cataracts, and 19% of eyes with hypermature cataracts. In 66% of the eyes, the cataract was the only ultrasonographic abnormality found. Vitreous degeneration and retinal detachment were most often observed in eyes with a hypermature cataract, and were uncommon in eyes with an immature cataract. We concluded that ultrasonographic examination can detect abnormalities of the posterior segment when opacity of the anterior segment precludes complete ophthalmoscopic examination and that it is a quick and easy procedure for screening dogs for retinal detachment prior to cataract surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eighteen eyes of 66 dogs were visual on reevaluation of traumatic proptosis. Twenty-one eyes were enucleated, and 4 dogs were euthanatized. In 18 cats, no eyes regained vision after traumatic proptosis: 12 cats had the affected eye enucleated, 2 had an eye that was considered blind, and 4 cats were euthanatized. Affected eyes of 45 dogs and 2 cats underwent surgical replacement and temporary tarsorrhaphy. Favorable prognostic indicators for eyes undergoing surgical replacement included proptosis in a brachycephalic dog, positive direct or consensual pupillary light response, normal findings on posterior segment examination, and a proptosed eye that had vision on initial examination. Unfavorable prognostic indicators included proptosis in a nonbrachycephalic dog, proptosis in cats, hyphema, no visible pupil, facial fractures, optic nerve damage, and avulsion of 3 or more extraocular muscles.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine normal variation in, and effect of 2% pilocarpine hydrochloride on, intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil size in female horses during a specified period.

Animals

10 female horses with normotensive eyes.

Procedure

IOP and horizontal and vertical pupil size were measured on a single day between 8 am and 8 pm at hours 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Measurements were repeated after single-dose application of 2% pilocarpine to both eyes. IOP and pupil size were measured at 8 am and noon in a 5-day experiment of twice-daily application of 2% pilocarpine.

Results

Variation in IOP and pupil size was not significant between 8 am and 8 pm. Change in IOP or pupil size after a single dose of 2% pilocarpine also was not significant. In the multiple-dose experiment, the IOP at noon on the fifth day was significantly higher than the IOP in the morning on the first and second days. The IOP in the morning on the fifth day was significantly higher than the IOP in the morning and at noon on the first and second days. The IOP at noon on the fourth day was significantly higher than the morning IOP on the first and second days and at noon on the first day. The decrease in vertical pupil size was significant.

Conclusions

Between 8 am and 8 pm, variation in IOP and pupil size in normotensive eyes of horses is not significant. Two percent pilocarpine does not significantly change IOP between 8 am and 8 pm in clinically normal horses after a single dose or multiple twice-daily applications. After multiple twice-daily applications, a trend toward an increase in IOP was seen, and the decrease in vertical pupil size was significant. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1459–1462)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research