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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To estimate survival time for dogs with small intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIACA) following tumor excision with or without adjuvant chemotherapy and to identify factors associated with survival time.

DESIGN Retrospective case series with a nested cohort study.

ANIMALS 29 client-owned dogs with surgically resected, histologically diagnosed SIACA.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding dog signalment; clinical signs; physical examination findings; PCV; serum total solids concentration; diagnostic imaging results; tumor size, location, and histologic characteristics (serosal extension, lymphatic invasion, surgical margins, and lymph node metastasis); type of adjuvant chemotherapy; NSAID administration; and survival time. Variables were assessed for associations with survival time and hazard rate via Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards analyses.

RESULTS Overall median survival time for dogs with SIACA following tumor excision was 544 days (95% confidence interval, 369 to 719 days). Based on Kaplan-Meier estimates, the 1- and 2-year survival rates were 60% and 36%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only age category was an independent predictor of survival over the follow-up period. Dogs < 8 years of age had a significantly longer median survival time (1,193 days) than dogs ≥ 8 years (488 days). Lymph node metastasis, adjuvant chemotherapy, NSAID administration, and other assessed variables were not associated with survival time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that SIACA in dogs carries a fair prognosis following excision, even when lymph node metastasis is present. Prospective studies are warranted to better characterize the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy or NSAID administration on survival time.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify reasons for engagement in continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) activities, obstacles to participation, ways to provide more effective programs, and ideas to improve participation in CVME.

Design—Focus group interviews.

Sample Population—Selected practicing veterinarians from a state that did mandate continuing education for relicensure.

Procedure—12 focus group interviews were held throughout the state of California between May and September 1998. Practitioners were asked to respond to questions about where they obtain information to improve their practice, what value they see in CVME, what motivates them to participate, what obstacles to CVME participation exist, and ways CVME providers and practitioners could overcome those obstacles.

Results—84 practitioners participated in the focus group interviews. In addition to the educational value of CVME, participation was used to rejuvenate practice life and prevent feelings of isolation. Continuing education activities ranged from problem-oriented chats with colleagues to formal educational programs. Timing of events, distance, money, solo practice, stage of career, and family demands were identified as barriers to participation. Designing and marketing CVME with specific learning objectives and for specific career stages and using new educational delivery technologies were suggested to overcome some of these barriers.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—If CVME is to improve practice and patient care, it should be integrated into a practice's strategic planning and considered a legitimate business expense. Decisions about CVME participation are made easier if program objectives are clearly outlined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1001–1006)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To examine characteristics of cats and their owners with regard to outdoor access of owned cats.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—184 owned cats admitted to a veterinary referral center for nonemergency health concerns.

Results—Cats acquired recently were less likely to be allowed outdoors than those acquired during previous years. Outdoor access was often limited during the day; few owners allowed their cats to remain outdoors at night. Cats acquired from shelters were more likely to be kept exclusively as indoor pets than those cats acquired as strays. The presence of dogs but not other cats in the household was associated with increased outdoor access. Age, health status, and onychectomy status were not significantly associated with outdoor access. Cats allowed outdoor access were more likely to have been bitten by other cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The basis for an owner's decision to allow outdoor access appears to be multifactorial, and there may be regional differences in outdoor access of owned cats. Acquisition source is associated with outdoor access of owned cats. Availability of information regarding outdoor access of cats may influence decision making. Educational efforts targeted at specific groups of cat owners, as well as programs that acknowledge owner beliefs regarding quality of life for their cats, may help to address the health, safety, and population concerns associated with outdoor access of owned cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:15417–1545)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

OBJECTIVE

To explore veterinarians' perceptions and veterinary experts' opinions regarding antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) on dairy farms in the western United States.

SAMPLE

20 dairy veterinarians and 9 AMS experts.

PROCEDURES

3 focus group discussions involving 20 dairy veterinarians from California, Idaho, and Washington and an expert opinion study involving 9 North American AMS experts were conducted. During focus group discussions, participants were asked open-ended questions regarding implementation of AMS programs on dairy farms. Discussions were recorded and transcribed for thematic analysis. An asynchronous nominal group process was used for the expert opinion study. Participants were asked to complete a series of 3 online surveys consisting of open-ended questions. Expert opinion data underwent thematic analysis and were compared with results obtained from focus group discussions.

RESULTS

Veterinarian-perceived barriers to implementation of AMS on dairy farms included variable relationships with clients and farm employees, ensuring AMS provided value to the farm, and uncertainty about regulations for monitoring on-farm antimicrobial use (AMU). Veterinarians were willing to accept additional responsibility for AMU provided that protocols were adopted to ensure them more complete control of on-farm AMU and they were compensated. The AMS experts indicated that effective implementation of AMS on dairy farms requires producer buy-in and tools to facilitate treatment protocol development and monitoring.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Additional veterinary oversight of AMU on dairy farms will require engagement by both veterinarians and producers and practical value-added methods for AMS. Continuing education programs should address treatment protocol development, AMU monitoring strategies, and employee training.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Quantitative electroencephalography (qeeg) was assessed in 5 dogs anesthetized with 1.6% end-tidal concentration of isoflurane and after subsequent administration of the benzodiazepine midazolam (0.2 mg/kg of body weight, iv). Ventilation was controlled to maintain normocapnia. Effect of the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.04 mg/kg, iv), on qeeg in midazolam-isoflurane-anesthetized dogs was determined. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, esophageal temperature, arterial pH and blood gas tensions, endtidal CO2 concentration, and end-tidal isoflurane concentration were monitored throughout the study. A 21-lead linked-ear montage was used for recording the eeg data. Quantitative eeg data were stored on an optical disk for later analysis. Values for absolute power of eeg were determined for δ-, θ-, α-, and β-frequencies. Cardiovascular variables remained stable throughout the study. Midazolam administration was associated with decreased absolute power in all frequencies of eeg at all electrode sites. Administration of flumazenil antagonized midazolam-induced decreased absolute power of eeg in all frequencies at all electrode sites. We conclude that qeeg provides a noninvasive, objective measure of midazolamand flumazenil-induced changes in cortical activity during isoflurane anesthesia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine in vitro contractile responses of equine colonic veins to various vasoconstrictor agents.

Animals

Colonic veins collected from 8 adult horses.

Procedure

Veins were cut into 4-mm-wide rings, placed in organ baths at 37 C, and attached to a force-transducer interfaced with a polygraph; 2 g of tension was applied, and rings were allowed to equilibrate for 45 minutes. Bath solution was replaced, and tension was reapplied at 15-minute intervals. Cumulative concentration responses (10-8 to 10-4 M) were determined for each agent, using separate rings (n = 8). Three vein groups were evaluated: endothelium-intact, endothelium-denuded, and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10-5 M)-treated. Maximal responses by each vein to each agent were considered 100%; responses to lower concentrations were calculated as percentage of maximum.

Results

Considering all vein groups, comparison of the doses that caused 50% of the maximal contraction revealed relative sensitivity of colonic veins to be: angiotensin II (ANG) > thromboxane B2 analogue (TXB) > 5-hydoxytryptamine (5HT) > norepinephrine (NE) > histamine (HST) > prostaglandin F (PGF) > vasopressin (VP). Compared with ANG, PGF, TXB, and VP, treatment with HST, 5HT, and NE evoked significantly greater responses. Endothelium-denuded and L-NAME-treated colonic veins had significantly greater maximal contractile responses than did endothelium-intact veins.

Conclusions

Response of colonic veins to vasoconstrictor agents was differential; sensitivity was not altered by endothelium removal or L-NAME treatment; maximal responses of endothelium-intact veins were greater than those of endothelium-denuded and L-NAME-treated veins; and responses of endothelium-denuded and L-NAME-treated veins were not different.

Clinical Relevance

Alterations in colonic veins that mimic conditions associated with large-colon volvulus may contribute to blood flow alterations, edema formation, and vascular responses to hypovolemic and endotoxic shock. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1145–1151)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To define reference intervals (RIs) for arterial blood gas (aBG) measurements in healthy, nonsedated, dolichocephalic, and mesocephalic (nonbrachycephalic) dogs at approximately 1,535 m above sea level and compare these findings with healthy, nonsedated, brachycephalic dogs living at the same altitude.

ANIMALS

120 adult nonbrachycephalic dogs and 20 adult brachycephalic dogs.

METHODS

Cases were prospectively enrolled from October 2021 to June 2022. Dogs were enrolled from the community or after presentation for wellness examinations or minor injuries including lacerations, nail injuries, and lameness. Physical examinations and systolic blood pressure (sBP) measurements were obtained before blood sample collection. Arterial blood was collected from the dorsal pedal artery or femoral artery. After data collection, brachycephalic dogs underwent pre- and postexercise tolerance assessments.

RESULTS

The mean and RI values for arterial pH (7.442; 7.375 to 7.515), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (Pao 2; 78.3; 59.2 to 92.7 mm Hg), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (Paco 2; 28.0; 21.5 to 34.4 mm Hg), saturation of arterial oxygen (Sao 2; 98.4; 84.3% to 101.4%), HCO3 (18.9; 14.9 to 22.4 mmol/L), concentration of total hemoglobin (ctHb; 17.5; 13.4 to 21.1 g/dL), and sBP (133; 94 to 180 mm Hg) were established for healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs at 1,535-m altitude. All aBG measurements were statistically and clinically different from those previously reported for dogs at sea level. Brachycephalic dogs had significantly lower Pao 2 and Sao 2 (P = .0150 and P = .0237, respectively) and significantly higher ctHb (P = .0396) compared to nonbrachycephalic dogs acclimatized to the same altitude; the nonbrachycephalic RIs were not transferable to the brachycephalic dogs for Pao 2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study represents the first collation of aBG measurements for healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs acclimatized to an altitude of 1,535 m. Additionally, this study identified differences in arterial oxygenation measurements between brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs. RIs in brachycephalic dogs need to be established.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cisplatin was administered at a dosage of 50 mg/m2 of body surface to 69 dogs with various neoplasms. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive antiemetics according to 1 of the following 5 protocols: group 1, no antiemetic (control, n = 45 treatments); group 2, 0.4 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight (n = 52 treatments); group 3, 0.2 mg of butorphanol/kg (n = 19 treatments); group 4, 2 mg of cyproheptadine/kg (n = 48 treatments); and group 5, 1 mg of cyproheptadine/kg (n = 10 treatments). Randomization was performed for each dog prior to each treatment. Butorphanol was administered im immediately after completion of cisplatin infusion. Cyproheptadine was given orally 12 to 14 hours before and again immediately before cisplatin administration. The proportion of dogs that vomited in group 1 was 40 of 45 (89%). Butorphanol at a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg proved highly effective in preventing cisplatin-induced vomiting, reducing the proportion of dogs that vomited (10/52, 19%) compared with the control group.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association