Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: A. Richard Alleman x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
History

A 6-year-old 61-cm 1.2-kg (2.6-lb) female savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus) in a zoological collection became anorexic. The monitor had no previous history of illness. On physical examination, the coelom was considered distended and a large semiflocculent mass was palpated in the left side of the coelomic cavity. The lizard did not appear to be in pain while being examined. The monitor was referred for evaluation, and radiographs of the coelomic cavity were obtained (Figure 1).

Horizontal lateral (A) and dorsoventral (B) radiographic views of the coelomic cavity of a 6-year-old female savannah monitor

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine signalment, clinical findings, results of diagnostic testing, outcome, and postmortem findings in horses with West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 horses with WNV encephalomyelitis.

Procedure—Clinical data were extracted from medical records of affected horses.

Results—On the basis of clinical signs and results of serologic testing, WNV encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 46 of 56 horses with CNS signs. Significantly more males than females were affected. Increased rectal temperature, weakness or ataxia, and muscle fasciculations were the most common clinical signs. Paresis was more common than ataxia, although both could be asymmetrical and multifocal. Supportive treatment included anti-inflammatory medications, fluids, antimicrobials, and slinging of recumbent horses. Results of the IgM capture ELISA and the plaque reduction neutralization test provided a diagnosis in 43 horses, and only results of the plaque reduction neutralization test were positive in 3 horses. Mortality rate was 30%, and 71% of recumbent horses were euthanatized. One horse that had received 2 vaccinations for WNV developed the disease and was euthanatized. Follow-up communications with 19 owners revealed that most horses had residual deficits at 1 month after release from the hospital; abnormalities were resolved in all but 2 horses by 12 months after release.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings were similar to those of previous WNV outbreaks in horses but provided additional clinical details from monitored hospitalized horses. Diagnostic testing is essential to diagnosis, treatment is supportive, and recovery rate of discharged ambulatory horses is < 100%. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1241–1247)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association