Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: A. N. Baird x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a cesarean section because of dystocia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique, number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative treatments, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone conversations with owners.

Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly higher than the proportion of goats that did (2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. The most common reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation of the cervix. The most common surgical approach was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia. The most common complication following surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials was associated with a lower rate of complications. All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant and had no problems with dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cesarean section is an effective method of resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:275–279)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.


47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.


Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.


Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.


The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association