Objective—To determine whether bovine herpesvirus
1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) virus 1
(BVDV1), or BVDV 2 (BVDV2) were shed after parenteral
administration of a multivalent modified-live
Animals—28 healthy beef calves and 4 healthy pregnant
Procedure—A commercially available modified-live
virus multivalent vaccine was administered to steers
and heifers (n = 18) that were seronegative to BHV1,
BVDV1, and BVDV2. Four seronegative pregnant control
cows were held in contact with the vaccinated
calves for 103 days. Unvaccinated calves (n = 10)
were held as controls in a separate double-fenced
pen. Seroconversion was monitored by determining
serum neutralization titers after vaccination. Viral
shedding and viremia were assessed via analysis of
nasal swab specimens and blood by use of polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase-PCR assays and virus isolation.
Results—A transient BVDV1 viremia was detected in
most vaccinated calves 3 to 10 days after vaccination.
All vaccinated calves seroconverted to BVDV1 and
BVDV2. Seventeen of 18 vaccinated calves seroconverted
to BHV1. Viral shedding was not detected in
the vaccinated calves. All control cattle remained
seronegative to BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2 throughout
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shedding of
BHV1, BVDV1, and BVDV2 after vaccination was either
nonexistent or undetected and did not result in transmission
of BHV1, BVDV1, or BVDV2 vaccine viruses to
pregnant contact control cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
To establish a reference interval for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determined by measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin in clinically normal cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and compare serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentration in cheetahs with GFR.
33 cheetahs housed at 3 institutions.
A single bolus of inulin (3,000 mg/m2) was administered IV, and 5 serial blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum inulin concentration with the anthrone technique. The GFR was estimated with a modified slope-intercept method for the slow component of the serum concentration-versus-time curve. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations were measured in samples obtained immediately prior to inulin administration, and serum SDMA concentration was measured in stored samples.
Mean ± SD measured GFR was 1.58 ± 0.39 mL/min/kg, and the calculated reference interval was 0.84 to 2.37 mL/min/kg. There were significant negative correlations between GFR and serum creatinine concentration (r = −0.499), BUN concentration (r = −0.592), and age (r = −0.463). Serum SDMA concentration was not significantly correlated with GFR (r = 0.385), BUN concentration (r = −0.281), or serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.165).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
A reference interval for GFR in clinically normal cheetahs was obtained. Further evaluation of animals with renal disease is needed to determine whether measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin is a reliable diagnostic test for early detection of renal disease in cheetahs.
Objective—To identify herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.
Design—Population-based cross-sectional survey.
Sample—2,600 US cow-calf producers in 3 Eastern and 3 Plains states.
Procedures—The associations of herd characteristics with BRD detection in calves and cumulative BRD treatment incidence were determined.
Results—459 (177%) surveys were returned and met the inclusion criteria; 48% and 52% of these surveys were completed by producers in Plains and Eastern states, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) number of animals in herds in Plains and Eastern states were 102 (77 to 126) and 48 (40 to 56), respectively. Bovine respiratory disease had been detected in ≥ 1 calf in 21% of operations; ≥ 1 calf was treated for BRD and ≥ 1 calf died because of BRD in 89.2% and 46.4% of operations in which calf BRD was detected, respectively. Detection of BRD in calves was significantly associated with large herd size, detection of BRD in cows, and diarrhea in calves. Calving season length was associated with BRD in calves in Plains states but not Eastern states. Cumulative incidence of BRD treatment was negatively associated with large herd size and examination of cows to detect pregnancy and positively associated with calving during the winter, introduction of calves from an outside source, offering supplemental feed to calves, and use of an estrous cycle synchronization program for cows.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated factors associated with calf BRD risk; modification of these factors could potentially decrease the incidence of BRD in nursing calves.