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Abstract

Objective—To determine the morphologic and biochemical characteristics of hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints in llamas.

Animals—12 adult llamas (6 with bilateral hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints and 6 age- and sex-matched control llamas).

Procedures—Llamas were evaluated by use of lameness examination, ultrasonography, and radiography. A CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of concentrations of trace minerals in serum and liver samples were performed. Llamas were euthanized, and samples of the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, and suspensory ligament were obtained from 4 areas and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen or suspended in neutral-buffered 10% formalin. Immunohistochemical evaluation of collagen types I and III and assays for measurement of lysyl oxidase activity were performed.

Results—2 affected llamas had a visible gait deficit associated with metacarpophalangeal joint hyperextension. Radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis was detected in 1 severely affected llama, and ultrasonographic changes of soft tissue mineralization and suspensory desmitis were observed in 2 llamas. Liver concentrations of copper were lower and serum concentrations of zinc higher in affected llamas, compared with values in control llamas. Lysyl oxidase activity and collagen distribution did not differ significantly between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints in llamas does not appear to be the result of injury or degeneration of the suspensory ligament or flexor tendons. Lower copper concentrations coupled with higher zinc concentrations in affected llamas may be indicative of secondary copper deficiency.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

We investigated small-volume (5 ml/kg) 7% NaCl in 6% dextran 70 (HS/D70) as an alternative to large-volume (60 ml/kg) 0.9% NaCl for treatment of experimentally induced canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv) shock. The stomach was surgically displaced and then distended with an intragastric balloon in 11 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital. All dogs were subjected to gdv for 180 minutes before partial decompression and resuscitation. Hemodynamic values, blood gas values, and plasma volume were measured during control, shock, and resuscitation periods. Resuscitation started with 1 group (n = 6) receiving 5 ml of HS/D70/kg, iv, over 5 minutes, and the other group (n = 5) receiving 60 ml of 0.9% NaCl/kg, iv, over 60 minutes. Both groups received a surgical maintenance dosage (20 ml/kg/h) of 0.9% NaCl after initial resuscitation. Resuscitative effects of small-volume HS/D70 were similar to large-volume 0.9% NaCl during the first hour of treatment; however, cardiac output was significantly higher in the HS/D70 group for the last 2 hours of resuscitation. Changes in heart rate, left ventricular pressure change, and systemic vascular resistance appeared to be responsible for improved perfusion. Mixed venous oxygen partial pressure data supported improved perfusion in the HS/D70 group. Packed cell volume remained higher in the HS/D70 group, indicating less hemodilution and improved oxygen delivery. Resuscitation of this gdv-induced shock model was better sustained with small-volume HS/D70, compared with conventional large-volume 0.9% NaCl.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate signalment, history, clinical and pathologic findings, and seasonal weather patterns in association with fatal gastrointestinal parasitism in goats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—152 goats that were > 1 day of age.

Procedures—Characteristics including age and counts of coccidia oocysts and trichostrongyle ova (eggs) per gram of feces (EPG) in goats that died because of gastrointestinal parasitism and goats that died because of other causes were compared. Weather data and annual incidence of caprine fatal gastrointestinal parasitism were investigated.

Results—Death was attributed to gastrointestinal parasitism in 31 of 152 (20%) goats (median age, 5 months; range, 1 month to 7 years); deaths were attributed to coccidiosis (n = 7 goats; median age, 4 months; median EPG, 2,225), trichostrongylosis (6 goats; median age, 1.25 years; median EPG, 3,700), or dual infection (18 goats; median age, 6.7 months; median EPG, 8,088 coccidia and 5,475 trichostrongyles). Sudden onset of weakness or death was a common historical finding; diarrhea was evident in 15 goats. Common postmortem findings in these goats included cachexia, tissue pallor, poorly formed feces, and mesenteric lymphadenomegaly. Wet weather in spring and summer was associated with increased annual incidence of fatal gastrointestinal parasitism in goats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gastrointestinal parasitism is an important cause of death in goats. Clinical signs may not develop until just prior to death, and diagnosis is achieved via parasitologic evaluation of feces and necropsy. Seasonal weather patterns should be considered on an annual basis when designing parasite control programs for goats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Expiants were prepared from skeletal muscle tissue from 5 nondystrophic pups and from 5 pups with X-linked muscular dystrophy; pups were 2 to 17 weeks old. A serial reexplant method resulted in optimal cell density with minimal fibroblast growth. Cultures were examined daily by use of phase-contrast microscopy; differentiated (post-fusion) cultures were examined by electron microscopy. Moderate nuclear pleomorphism and cell clustering were observed in cultures of normal and dystrophic muscle cells. Cultures were maintained to 27 days after plating. Minimal myofilament synthesis was observed in multinucleate cells from nondystrophic and dystrophic pups, but spontaneous contraction of myotubes was not observed during this period. Differences in growth, fusion, or differentiation of myogenic cells into multinucleate cells and myotubes were not found between dystrophic and normal muscle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—15 llamas and 34 alpacas between 3 weeks and 18 years old with fecal oocysts or intestinal coccidial stages morphologically consistent with Eimeria macusaniensis were examined. Nineteen of the camelids were admitted dead, and 30 were admitted alive. Camelids admitted alive accounted for 5.5% of all camelid admissions during this period.

Clinical Findings—Many severely affected camelids had signs of lethargy, weight loss, decreased appetite, and diarrhea. Camelids with clinical infection also commonly had evidence of circulatory shock, fat mobilization, and protein loss. Nonsurviving camelids also had evidence of shock, edema, bile stasis, renal insufficiency, hepatic lipidosis, muscle damage, relative hemoconcentration, and sepsis. Postmortem examination frequently re-vealed complete, segmental replacement of the mucosa of the distal portion of the jejunum with coccidial meronts and gamonts. For 17 of 42 camelids, results of initial fecal examinations for E macusaniensis were negative.

Treatment and Outcome—Most camelids admitted alive were treated with amprolium hydrochloride, plasma, and various supportive treatments. Fifteen of the 30 treated camelids died or were euthanized.

Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that E macusaniensis may be an important gastrointestinal tract pathogen in camelids of all ages. Clinical signs were frequently nonspecific and were often evident before results of fecal examinations for the parasite were positive. As with other coccidia, severity of disease was probably related to ingested dose, host immunity, and other factors. The clinical and herd relevance of positive fecal examination results must be determined.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association