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Abstract

Objective

To establish normal predictive values for cord dorsum potential (CDP) onset latency after thoracic and pelvic limb sensory or mixed nerve stimulation in adult dogs.

Animals

26 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure

Sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were recorded proximally from tibial and lateral superficial radial nerves after distal stimulation. The CDP were recorded from the L4-L5 interarcuate ligament for the tibial nerve and from the C7-T1 interarcuate ligament for the radial nerve. Linear regression analyses were performed for CDP onset latency, and mean ± SD was calculated for CDP onset to peak latency differences and sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV).

Results

For the tibial nerve, expected CDP onset latency (CDPOL) = −1.194 + 0.014 × pelvic limb length (mm; R 2 = 0.912); CDPOL = −2.156 + 0.011 × pelvic limb/spinal length (mm; R 2 = 0.911); and CDPOL = 0.941 + 2.197 × tibial nerve SNAP latency (milliseconds; R 2 = 0.903). For the radial nerve, CDPOL = −0.9 + 0.014 × thoracic limb length (mm; R 2 = 0.873); and CDPOL = 1.454 + 1.874 × radial nerve SNAP latency (milliseconds; R 2 = 0.903). Mean ± SD for CDP onset to peak latency difference for tibial and radial nerves was 3.1 ± 0.3 and 3.0 ± 0.4 milliseconds, respectively.

Conclusions

Strong linear associations exist between CDPOL and a number of easily measured peripheral independent variables in dogs. There is also a narrow range of normal values for CDP onset to peak latency differences that is independent of limb length.

Clinical Relevance

CDP evaluation can be used to accurately assess functional severity and distribution of abnormalities in proximal sensory nerves, dorsal nerve roots, and spinal cord dorsal horns in dogs with suspected neuropathy, radiculopathy, or myelopathy involving the brachial or lumbosacral intumescences. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:222-226)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

A method is described to evaluate pharmacologic influence on bovine tracheal mucus transport in vitro. In this model, cholinergic agonist methacholine stimulated transport velocity. Methacholine at concentration of 10−6 M increased velocity by 13.6%, whereas 10−5 M increased velocity by 26%. Stimulation was inhibited by atropine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Fifteen Collies, previously having mild reactions to ivermectin challenge (120 μg/kg of body weight; 20 times the recommended dosage level), were studied to evaluate the effects of milbemycin oxime administration at 5 and 10 mg/kg (10 and 20 times the manufacturer's recommended dosage). Five replicates, comprising 3 dogs each, were formed on the basis of body weight. Within replicates, each dog was randomly allocated to treatment with 5 or 10 mg of milbemycin/kg or served as a untreated control. Dogs were examined repeatedly for signs of toxicosis for 4 days after treatment and daily thereafter. Two of 5 dogs treated at 5 mg/kg (10 × ) developed signs of mild depression on the day of treatment, but were normal 24 hours after treatment. All 5 dogs treated at 10 mg/kg (20 × ) developed signs of mild depression and ataxia by 6 hours. Signs persisted for 24 hours in 3 dogs. Two of these dogs also had mydriasis, whereas 3 salivated excessively. All dogs recovered completely by day 2 after treatment. The results of this study demonstrated that Collies sensitive to the effects of 120 μg of ivermectin (20 × )/kg show similar sensitivity to the effects of milbemycin oxine administered at 10 mg/kg (20 x). We conclude that ivermectin and milbemycin commercial formulations have similar margins of safety and that milbemycin toxicosis appears to be dose-dependent in Collies with a demonstrated sensitivity to ivermectin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% and 2% lidocaine hydrochloride solution on the anterior segment of the eyes in dogs.

Animals—16 adult healthy dogs (8 male and 8 female) judged to be free of ocular disease.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 8 dogs each. Group 1 dogs received an intracameral injection of 0.10 mL of preservative-free 1% lidocaine solution in the designated eye, and group 2 dogs received 0.10 mL of preservative-free 2% lidocaine solution in the designated eye. After injection, intraocular pressure was measured every 12 hours for 48 hours and then every 24 hours until 168 hours after injection. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was performed preceding intracameral injection, 8 hours after injection, and then every 24 hours until 168 hours after injection. Ultrasonic pachymetry and specular microscopy were performed preceding intracameral injection and 72 and 168 hours after injection. Corneal thickness and endothelial cell density and morphology were compared with baseline measurements.

Results—No significant differences were found in intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, endothelial cell density, and morphologic features in either group, compared with baseline. A significant difference in aqueous flare was found for treated and control eyes 8, 24, and 48 hours after injection, compared with baseline. No significant difference in aqueous flare was found between treated and control eyes within either group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No adverse ocular effects were detected after intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% or 2% lidocaine solution; thus, its use would be safe for intraocular pain management in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1325–1330)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To elucidate the pathogenesis of Greyhound meningoencephalitis by evaluating gene expression in diseased brain tissue.

Animals—Cadavers of 3 diseased (8- to 15-month-old) and 3 (10-month-old) control Greyhounds.

Procedures—Samples of RNA were extracted from brain tissue of all dogs and evaluated by use of a canine-specific microarray.

Results—A unique profile involving significant alterations in expression of 21 genes was evident in diseased dogs, compared with expression in control dogs. Most genes with up-regulated expression were related to immune function, with the remaining genes involved in ligand binding, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and formation and transportation of proteins including enzymes. Of notable involvement were genes encoding for major histocompatibility complexes, small inducible cytokine A5 precursor, myxovirus-resistant proteins, and components of the classical complement pathway, which are all genes common to pathways of viral infections and autoimmunity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although results of microarray analysis did not clearly define a potential etiology of Greyhound meningoencephalitis, they did highlight a consistent gene alteration signature that would suggest a common etiology and pathogenesis for this condition.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old spayed female Mastiff was evaluated for treatment of chronic nonhealing pressure wounds over both elbow regions resulting from attempts at hypertrophic callus excision.

Clinical Findings—The wound bed granulation tissue was mottled red and yellow with hyperemic, rolled epithelial edges. The right wound communicated with a large fluid pocket along the thoracic wall. The dog had an inflammatory leukogram with a left shift.

Treatment and Outcome—The wounds were debrided, and tissue specimens were collected for histologic evaluation, microbial culture, and bacterial identification by means of molecular diagnostic techniques. The left wound was closed immediately. Calcium alginate rope with silver was packed into the right wound. Vacuum-assisted closure was applied for 6 days. Debridement was repeated, and a thoracodorsal axial pattern flap was used to cover the wound. Systemic treatment with antimicrobials was initiated, and pressure over the elbow regions was relieved. Bacterial biofilms were identified histologically in tissue specimens from both wounds. Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus canis were cultured and identified by 16S rRNA fragment sequencing. Pyrosequencing identified multiple bacterial species and no fungal organisms. Both wounds healed successfully.

Clinical Relevance—Biofilms are implicated in infected orthopedic implants in veterinary patients; however, this is the first report of a bacterial biofilm in chronic wounds in a dog. In human wound care, extensive debridement is performed to disrupt the biofilm; a multimodal treatment approach is recommended to delay reformation and help clear the infection. In this case, biofilm reformation was prevented by systemic treatment with antimicrobials, by reducing local pressure on the wounds, and by wound closure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential risk factors for development of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in Bouviers des Flandres.

DESIGN Prospective, observational study.

ANIMALS 98 Bouviers des Flandres.

PROCEDURES All dogs underwent slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, gonioscopy, applanation tonometry, streak retinoscopy, and A-scan, B-scan, and high-resolution ultrasonography. Iridocorneal angles and degree of pectinate ligament dysplasia sheeting were graded, and an angle index was mathematically derived for each eye on the basis of these values. Ciliary clefts evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography were classified as open, narrow, or closed. Owners were contacted by telephone 7 to 9 years after the initial examination to determine whether dogs had a subsequent diagnosis of PACG. Relationships between previously recorded variables and the development of PACG were evaluated by logistic regression methods. Available pedigrees were reviewed to assess genetic relationships among affected dogs.

RESULTS 9 of 92 (9.8%) dogs with follow-up information available developed PACG. An angle index < 1 and presence of a narrow or closed ciliary cleft in 1 or both eyes were each significantly associated with development of PACG. Odds of developing PACG for dogs with an angle index < 1 (indicating marked reduction in outflow capacity through the iridocorneal angle), a narrow or closed ciliary cleft in > 1 eye, or both findings were 13, 20, and 28 times those for dogs that did not have these findings, respectively. All dogs that developed PACG shared 1 common male sire or grandsire.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Several anatomic factors were significant risk factors for development of PACG in this population of dogs. Results also suggested a genetic component for the disease.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine in vitro efficacy of gentamicin, tobramycin, and miconazole when used in combination, with or without atropine, against Pseudomonas or Aspergillus sp.

Procedure

Selected ophthalmic agents were combined for predetermined times. Sterile disks impregnated with the combined solutions were prepared and placed on Mueller-Hinton plates that were seeded with Pseudomonas or Aspergillus sp. Zones of growth inhibition were measured at postincubation hours 24 and 48.

Results

Tobramycin alone inhibited growth of Pseudomonas sp, whereas miconazole inhibited growth of Aspergillus sp. Significant differences in zones of growth inhibition when atropine was combined with tobramycin, when gentamicin was combined with miconazole, or when atropine was combined with miconazole and gentamicin, were not detected.

Clinical Relevance

Combining selected ophthalmic therapeutic agents for as long as 6 hours does not appear to alter the in vitro efficacy of the agents against microorganisms used in this study. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:316–318)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research