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SUMMARY

Objective

To investigate the bacterial flora of the proximal part of the small intestine of healthy cats and determine the effect of sample collection method on results of bacteriologic culture.

Animals

25 healthy barrier-maintained specific-pathogen-free-derived cats.

Procedure

Aspirated, undiluted samples of proximal small intestinal juice were obtained via oral endoscopy (UEA), and a second sample was collected after instillation of 1 ml of sterile saline solution (diluted, DEA). Undiluted juice also was obtained by direct needle aspiration (NA) from the intestinal lumen. Samples for quantitative and semiqualitative bacteriologic examination were grown aerobically and anaerobically.

Results

Mean (range) log10 colony-forming units of total bacteria/ml were 6.2 (2.0 to 8.3) for NA, 6.0 (2.0 to 7.9) for UEA, and 4.9 (2.0 to 7.5) for DEA samples. One cat had no growth (≤ 2.0 colony-forming units/ml) for samples obtained using all 3 methods, and another cat had no growth for the DEA sample only. Mean total aerobic, anaerobic, and bacterial counts were not significantly different between NA and UEA methods, but these techniques yielded significantly higher mean counts than did DEA samples (P ≤ 0.002, ANOVA). As a percentage of the total bacteria isolated, anaerobes constituted a median 35, 32, and 50% of the NA, UEA, and DEA samples, respectively. Good correlation was found between the NA and UEA samples for total bacteria, aerobes, and anaerobes (r ≥ 0.830).

Conclusions

Compared with human beings, healthy cats carry high numbers of bacteria in the proximal part of the small intestine. By comparison with NA samples, UEA samples accurately reflected bacterial populations in the small intestine, whereas DEA samples significantly underestimated these populations. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:48–51)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate changes in the fecal flora of healthy cats after dietary supplementation with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS).

Animals

12 healthy, barrier-maintained, specific-pathogen-free-derived adult cats.

Procedure

Fresh fecal samples for quantitative and qualitative bacteriologic examination were collected from each cat after ingestion of a replete dry (basal) diet for a minimum of 8 weeks. The diet was then supplemented with 0.75% FOS, and another fecal sample was collected after 12 weeks.

Results

Mean ± SD fecal aerobic, anaerobic, and total bacterial counts (log10 colony-forming units per gram of feces [CFU/g]) did not differ significantly between diets (8.3 ± 0.8, 9.2 ± 0.6, 9.4 ± 0.4, respectively, for the basal diet; and 8.4 ± 0.8, 9.7 ± 0.7, and 9.8 ± 0.7, respectively, for the FOS diet), although there was a trend for higher numbers of anaerobes and total bacteria associated with the FOS diet. Members of the genus Bacteroides, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, lactobacilli, and Plesiomonas shigeloides were the most prevalent bacteria isolated. Compared with samples from cats fed basal diet, there was a trend for increased mean counts of lactobacilli (P = 0.02) and Bacteroides spp (P = 0.05) after FOS supplementation, and a trend for decreased mean numbers of Escherichia coli (P = 0.03) and Clostridium perfringens (P = 0.08) to be associated with the FOS diet. Supplementation of FOS resulted in a median 164-fold increase in numbers of lactobacilli, 13.2-fold increase in Bacteroides spp, 98% reduction in numbers of C perfringens, and 75% reduction in numbers of E coli.

Conclusions

Supplementation of the diet with FOS resulted in alteration of the fecal flora of cats. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:436–440)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Medical records were reviewed for 93 dogs with bacterial pneumonia from which transtracheal aspiration samples were obtained for culturing of Mycoplasma spp and aerobic bacteria. On the basis of culture results, there were 65 Mycoplasma-positive dogs, including 7 dogs for which only Mycoplasma spp were isolated, and 28 Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Most dogs were > 5 years old, and differences in breed or gender distribution among the 3 groups of dogs were not detected. Hematologic and serum biochemical analysis results did not differ significantly between Mycoplasma-positive and Mycoplasma-negative dogs. Fifty-three of 93 (57%) dogs had a concurrent medical problem that may have predisposed them to developing bacterial pneumonia as a sequelae to aspiration or immunosuppression. Mycoplasma-positive dogs were significantly (P < 0.005) more likely to have > 1 species of bacteria isolated from their transtracheal aspiration samples. Clinical outcome was favorable when antimicrobials were selected on the basis of antimicrobial susceptibility results for the other bacterial isolates and not on results of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma spp. It could not be determined whether Mycoplasma spp were primary pathogens or only opportunists.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To investigate changes in the duodenal flora of healthy cats over time, and evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS).

Animals

12 healthy, barrier-maintained, specific pathogen-free cats.

Procedure

Duodenal juice for bacteriologic examination was collected via oral endoscopy 5 times from each cat over a 32-week period. Cats were allotted randomly to 2 groups, and a crossover design study, during which they were fed either a replete dry (basal) diet or, for 12 consecutive weeks, basal diet supplemented with 0.75% FOS, was done. Samples (3 from cats fed the basal and 2 from cats fed the FOS diet) were collected for a minimum of 6 weeks after commencement of feeding, and a minimum of 6 weeks apart.

Results

Mean aerobic, anaerobic, and total bacterial counts did not differ significantly among sample collection times. After pooling of the results, mean (± SD) log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of aerobic, anaerobic, and total bacteria/ml were 5.5 ± 1.1, 4.8 ± 1.0 and 5.6 ± 1.1, respectively. However, individual cats had considerable variation in counts: mean (range) intraindividual coefficients of variation were: 19.0 (6.1 to 34.2), 19.9 (4.8 to 35.5), and 18.1 (5.5 to 32.6)%, respectively. In 1 cat, total bacterial count varied between < 3.0 and 6.3 CFU/ml. Bacterial flora varied qualitatively: only Enterococcus faecalis, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides, Pasteurella, and Streptococcus spp, and unidentified gram-negative (aerobic) rods were present in > 50% of the samples.

Conclusions

Wide quantitative and qualitative variation in the duodenal flora of healthy cats was observed over time, which was not affected by dietary supplementation with FOS. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:431–435)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

On the basis of results in dogs, conditioning exercise may increase sensitivity to nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Five Thoroughbreds were exercised/conditioned 3 times weekly on a treadmill for 8 months. Increasing maximal rate of 02 consumption verified that the horses were responding to exercise conditioning. Six nonexercised Thoroughbreds served as the control group. Studies were done with horses under general anesthesia by use of halothane during partial paralysis by a brief constantrate infusion with the muscle relaxant, metocurine iodide. Quantification of degree of paralysis of the hoof twitch (eg, digital extensor) occurred with simultaneous quantification of blood values of metocurine. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of the data were done by a nonlinear regression program, using the Hill equation. There were no differences in findings between exercised and nonexercised horses. The mean blood concentration for the 50% paralyzing dose of metocurine was 0.44 ± 0.11 (sd) μg/ml in exercised horses, and 0.58 ± 0.22 μg/ml in nonexercised horses. Despite evidence for a response to conditioning, a significant change in the sensitivity of the neuromuscular junction to metocurine was not found.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate clearance, antibody responses, potential shedding, and histologic lesions in reproductive tissues of adult bison bulls after vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

Animals

61 two- and 3-year-old bison bulls.

Procedure

12 bison bulls were vaccinated SC with B abortus strain RB51, 3 were inoculated SC with 0.15M NaCI, and antibody responses were evaluated. Various specimens were obtained to evaluate bacterial shedding. Four vaccinates and 1 control were necropsied 10, 20, and 30 weeks after vaccination. In a separate experiment, bison bulls were vaccinated SC with 0.15M NaCI, or by hand or ballistically with strain RB51. Antibody responses were monitored 6 weeks after vaccination and during necropsy 13 weeks after vaccination. Tissue specimens obtained during necropsy from both studies were evaluated bacteriologically and histologically.

Results

Strain RB51 was recovered at various times from semen of 3 of 12 vaccinated bison bulls in experiment 1. During necropsy, strain RB51 was recovered 10 and 20, but not 30, weeks after vaccination. In experiment 2, strain RB51 was recovered from lymphoid tissues of hand- and ballistic-vaccinated bison bulls during necropsy. In both experiments, microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, and seminal vesicles were minimal and did not differ between strain RB51-vaccinated and saline-inoculated bison bulls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Strain RB51 does not induce relevant inflammatory lesions in reproductive tissues of adult bison bulls. Shedding of strain RB51 in semen may be transient in some bison bulls; however, the importance of this observation is unknown. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:905–908)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of age on orocecal transit time (OCTT) in cats, using the breath hydrogen test, and to assess potential differences in nutrient absorption.

Animals

27 healthy cats.

Procedure

Cats were allocated to the following 3 groups on the basis of age: group A (9 kittens, 5 to 7 months old), group B (9 young adults, 3 to 5 years old), and group C (9 older cats, 12 to 15 years old). Cats were fed a standard canned diet for 2 weeks prior to measurement of OCTT. Exhaled hydrogen concentration (parts per minute [ppm●min]) was monitored for 8 hours after feeding 60 g of the canned diet.

Results

Mean OCTT in group-A cats was 203 minutes (range, 90 to 345 minutes), which was significantly different from that in group-B (317 minutes; range, 180 to 435 minutes) and group-C (309 minutes; range, 225 to 375 minutes) cats. Median area under the breath hydrogen excretion time curve (ppm●min) for the 8-hour monitoring period, first 45 minutes, and 105 minutes after OCTT for the 3 groups was not significantly different among groups.

Conclusions

Kittens had significantly faster OCTT than did adult cats. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1299–1302)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate inter- and intraindividual variation in results of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in cats.

Animals

19 healthy specific-pathogen-free-derived cats were allotted to group A (n = 13), which was accustomed, and group B (n = 6), which was unaccustomed to having blood drawn.

Procedure

Blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin assays before and 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after IV administration of 500 mg of dextrose/kg of body weight. Glucose half-life (t1/2) and disappearance coefficient (K), and the acute-phase insulin response (Ins0-10) were calculated. Inter- and intraindividual variability was as-sessed by calculating the coefficient of variation for test variables.

Results

Comparing the 2 tests, there were no significant differences in glucose and insulin concentrations prior to dextrose administration or in t1/2, K, or Ins0-10. However, compared with group-A cats, cats in group B had significantly (P < 0.05) longer t1/2 and lower K and Ins0-10 values, which was attributed to increased stress in these cats. Overall, the interindividual variability was 62.8% for K, 54.6% for t1/2, and 76.0% for Ins0-10. Mean intraindividual variability was 32.0 (range, 0.1 to 72.0)% for K and t1/2, and 45.8 (range, 4.0 to 179.5)% for Ins0-10. There was only a moderate correlation in results between the 2 tests (rs = 0.59 for t1/2 and K, rs = 0.58 for Ins0-10).

Conclusion

The variability in results of intravenous glucose tolerance tests in cats suggests caution is necessary in interpreting results of a single test in individuals. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1294-1298)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Intestinal permeability was assessed in 12 healthy cats by use of a differential sugar absorption test. A 50-ml isotonic aqueous solution containing a combination of 1.8 g of the disaccharide lactulose and 1.7 g of the monosaccharide mannitol was administered to cats via nasogastric tube. Urine was collected after 6 hours, and all urine samples were analyzed the same day, using a gas-liquid chromatographic technique (glc) and an enzymatic assay (enz). Median urinary recovery of lactulose was 0.27 and 0.54% determined by glc and enz, respectively. Differences between these groups were statistically significant (P = 0.023), and correlation between assays was high (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Median urinary recovery of mannitol was 1.93 and 2.09% for glc and enz, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups and the correlation between assays was high (r = 0.85, P < 0.01). The median lactulose-to-mannitol ratio was 0.29, using glc, and was 0.52, using enz. Correlation of these ratios was again high (r = 0.93, P < 0.01).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine maintenance energy requirements and effect of diet on performance of racing Greyhounds.

Animals—7 adult racing Greyhounds.

Procedure—Dogs were fed a higher fat and protein (HFP) or a lower fat and protein (LFP) diet for 8 weeks in a crossover design. Dogs were exercised for 15 minutes twice daily in a paddock and raced 500 m twice weekly. Blood gas, hematologic, and serum biochemical analyses were performed before and after racing, and race times were compared at the end of each diet period.

Results—Mean race time was significantly shorter (32.81± 0.65 seconds vs 33.05 ± 0.71 seconds), and mean racing speed over 500 m was significantly faster (15.25 ± 0.30 vs 15.13 ± 0.30 m·s–1) when dogs were fed the HFP diet than when they were fed the LFP diet. Diet had little or no effect on results of blood gas, hematologic, and serum biochemical analyses, except that Hct was 4% greater before and after racing when the HFP diet was fed than when the LFP diet was fed. Mean SD metabolizable energy intake from weeks 1 through 16 was 155 ± 9 kcal·kg–0.75·d–1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Racing Greyhounds ran faster when fed a diet containing higher fat and protein and lower carbohydrate contents. Their maintenance metabolizable energy requirement was slightly higher than that of moderately active dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1566–1573)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research