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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Radiographic and surgical findings were compared in 123 cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Radiography of the reticulum proved to be a sensitive test for detection of a foreign body (fb). An abnormal fb position on a radiograph was a good predictor of fb perforation. If an fb was fully attached to a magnet, it was unlikely to be perforating the reticular wall. When abnormal reticulum size, abnormal reticulum location, and gas shadows adjacent to the reticulum were found simultaneously on a radiograph, hepatic or perireticular abscess was likely. Reticular radiography proved to be a useful diagnostic aid in cattle suspected of having traumatic reticuloperitonitis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the influence of meal ingestion and orally administered erythromycin on gallbladder volume in dogs.

Animals—22 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Ultrasonographically determined gallbladder dimensions in unsedated dogs were used to calculate volume. Measurements were recorded after food was withheld for 12 hours (time 0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 100-g meal without (n = 22) or with erythromycin (1.0 mg/kg [7], 2.5 mg/kg [7], and both dosages [8]). Gallbladder ejection fraction represented the percentage of volume change from time 0. Intraday and interday coefficients of variation determined operator repeatability and physiologic variation.

Results—We did not detect significant differences in gallbladder volume per unit of body weight between treatments at time 0 or in ejection fraction percentage within or between treatments. Median time 0 gallbladder volume was 0.6 mL/kg (range, 0.4 to 1.9) but was > 1.0 mL/kg in 3 of 22 (14%) dogs and ≤ 1.0 mL/kg in 19 of 22 (86%) dogs. Twenty dogs achieved an ejection fraction ≥ 25% with at least 1 treatment, but 2 dogs with a gallbladder volume ≤ 1.0 mL/kg at time 0 did not. Intraday and interday coefficients of variation were 18% and 25%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gallbladder volume ≤ 1.0 mL/kg at time 0 and ejection fraction ≥ 25% were typical. No treatment consistently induced greater gallbladder contraction. Dogs with a gallbladder volume > 1.0 mL/kg and ejection fraction < 25% may require a combined meal and erythromycin protocol.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the potential of adipose-derived nucleated cell (ADNC) fractions to improve tendon repair in horses with collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedures—Collagenase was used to induce tendinitis in the superficial digital flexor tendon of 1 forelimb in each horse. Four horses were treated by injection of autogenous ADNC fractions, and 4 control horses were injected with PBS solution. Healing was compared by weekly ultrasonographic evaluation. Horses were euthanatized at 6 weeks. Gross and histologic evaluation of tendon structure, fiber alignment, and collagen typing were used to define tendon architecture. Biochemical and molecular analyses of collagen, DNA, and proteoglycan and gene expression of collagen type I and type III, decorin, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and insulin-like growth factor-I were performed.

Results—Ultrasonography revealed no difference in rate or quality of repair between groups. Histologic evaluation revealed a significant improvement in tendon fiber architecture; reductions in vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and collagen type III formation; and improvements in tendon fiber density and alignment in ADNC-treated tendons. Repair sites did not differ in DNA, proteoglycan, or total collagen content. Gene expression of collagen type I and type III in treated and control tendons were similar. Gene expression of COMP was significantly increased in ADNC-injected tendons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ADNC injection improved tendon organization in treated tendons. Although biochemical and molecular differences were less profound, tendons appeared architecturally improved after ADNC injection, which was corroborated by improved tendon COMP expression. Use of ADNC in horses with tendinitis appears warranted.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether body weight, age, or sex was associated with ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness (AT) in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness.

DESIGN

Retrospective cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS

266 dogs (22 sexually intact and 119 castrated males and 19 sexually intact and 106 spayed females representing 12 breeds) with non-adrenal gland illness.

PROCEDURES

Thickness of the caudal pole of the left and right adrenal glands was measured on longitudinal ultrasonographic images. Dogs were stratified into age and body weight categories to investigate associations with AT.

RESULTS

AT was significantly lower in dogs that weighed ≤ 12 kg (26.4 lb) than in dogs that weighed > 12 kg and left AT increased with age. Both left and right AT were larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 12 to ≤ 20 kg, and left AT was larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 20 to ≤ 30 kg.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that body weight, age, and sex were significantly associated with AT, indicating that these variables should be considered when evaluating AT in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness and when developing reference intervals for AT in dogs. Further, findings indicated that dogs with non-adrenal gland illness that weigh ≤ 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.62 cm, whereas dogs that weigh > 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.72 cm.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Adrenocortical tumors were diagnosed in 5 adult spayed ferrets. Four ferrets had bilaterally symmetrical alopecia of the caudal femoral region, abdomen, and tail, and 1 had alopecia of the distal limbs and feet. All 5 ferrets had vulvar swelling. During abdominal ultrasonography, irregular masses, believed to involve the adrenal glands, were seen in all 5 ferrets. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed successfully in each ferret by use of ventral midline celiotomy. On histologic examination of biopsy samples, 4 ferrets were found to have adrenocortical adenomas, and 1 ferret was found to have an adrenocortical adenocarcinoma. All clinical signs resolved after adrenalectomy, suggesting that the adrenocortical tumors had been secreting adrenocortical hormones.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 34 horses with a diagnosis of avulsion of the origin of the suspensory ligament that had been admitted to the veterinary medical teaching hospital between 1980 and 1993 were identified. In addition to clinical examination, 21 of 34 horses had scintigraphy and radiography performed during their examination. The usefulness of scintigraphy and radiography were assessed by comparing the initial findings reported in the medical record to those obtained in a retrospective review of the images. Thirty other horses with scintigraphic lesions of the proximal aspect of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone but with a confirmed diagnosis other than avulsion of the suspensory ligament served as controls for lesion specificity. Scintigraphy (bone phase, n=21) revealed increased uptake in all horses in both reviews. Only 14 of 21 (67%) horses radiographed, however, had at least 1 lesion during the initial radiographic evaluation that was reported to be suggestive of avulsion. When the radiographs were reviewed retrospectively, the radiologist identified 18 of 21 (86%) horses with lesions consistent with avulsion. The interpretation of scintigraphy appeared to be a more repeatable and sensitive diagnostic method than radiography. However, though scintigraphy was sensitive in identifying inflammation of the proximal aspect of the metacarpal/metatarsal region, no specific diagnosis of avulsion could be made without coincident radiography; the specificity of scintigraphy in diagnosing avulsion of the suspensory ligament was only 41% (21/51). Radiography of the proximal aspect of the third metacarpal/tarsal bone was found to be falsely negative in 3 of 21 (14%) horses on retrospective evaluation and in 7 of 21 (33%) horses on initial evaluation, perhaps because radiographic signs of disease were subtle.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Sodium hyaluronate reduces adhesions after tendon repair in rodents and dogs, and has been used in limited clinical trials in people. To evaluate its effect on tendon healing and adhesion formation in horses and to compare these effects with those of a compound of similar viscoelastic properties, a study was performed in horses, using a model of collagenase injection in the flexor tendons within the digital sheath.

Eight clinically normal horses were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Adhesion formation between the deep digital flexor tendon and the tendon sheath at the pastern region was induced in the forelimbs of all horses. Using tenoscopic control, a 20-gauge needle was inserted into the deep digital flexor tendon of horses under general anesthesia and 0.2 ml of collagenase (2.5 mg/ml) was injected. The procedure was repeated proximally at 2 other sites, spaced 1.5 cm apart. A biopsy forceps was introduced, and a 5-mm tendon defect was created at each injection site. Group-A horses had 120 mg of sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) gel injected into the tendon sheath of one limb. Group-B horses had methylcellulose gel injected at the same sites. The contralateral limbs of horses in both groups served as surgical, but noninjected, controls. Horses were euthanatized after 8 weeks of stall rest.

Ultrasonographic evaluation revealed improved tendon healing after NaHa injection, but no difference in peritendinous adhesion formation. Tendon sheath fluid volume and hyaluronic acid (ha) content were greater in NaHA-treated limbs. Gross pathologic examination revealed considerably fewer and smaller adhesions when limbs were treated with NaHA. However, significant difference in pull-out strengths was not evident between NaHA-treated and control limbs. Histologically, the deep digital flexor tendon from the NaHA-treated limbs had reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, improved tendon structure, and less intratendinous hemorrhage. Treatmerit with methylcullulose had no significant effect on tendon healing, adhesion size, quantity, or strength or on the volume and composition of the tendon sheath fluid. Sodium hyaluronate, administered intrathecally, appears to have a pharmaceutically beneficial action in this collagenase-induced tendinitis and adhesion model in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk, clinical features, and treatment responses for gallbladder disorders in Shetland Sheepdogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—38 Shetland Sheepdogs with gallbladder disease.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, physical findings, laboratory results, imaging features, coexistent illnesses, histologic findings, treatments, and survival rates.

Results—Mature dogs with gastrointestinal signs were predisposed (odds ratio, 7.2) to gallbladder disorders. Gallbladder mucocele was confirmed in 25 dogs. Concurrent problems included pancreatitis, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid excess, hypothyroidism, protein-losing nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, and gallbladder dysmotility. Mortality rate was 68% with and 32% without bile peritonitis. Nonsurvivors had high WBC and neutrophil count and low potassium concentration. Although preprandial hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum liver enzyme activities were common, gallbladder disease was serendipitously discovered in 11 of 38 dogs. Histologic examination (n = 20 dogs) revealed gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia in 20 dogs, cholecystitis in 16, periportal hepatitis in 9, and vacuolar hepatopathy in 7. Surgery included cholecystectomy (n = 17) and cholecystoenterostomy (4). In 1 hyperlipidemic dog without clinical signs, gallbladder mucocele resolved 6 months after beginning use of a fat-restricted diet and ursodeoxycholic acid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shetland Sheepdogs are predisposed to gallbladder disorders, with mucoceles and concurrent dyslipidemia or dysmotility in many affected dogs. Most dogs were without clinical signs during mucocele development. Low survival rate after cholecystectomy in clinically affected dogs suggested that preemptive surgical interventions may be a more appropriate treatment strategy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association