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- Author or Editor: William R. Brawner x
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Objective—To determine quantitative values for components of body composition in clinically normal dogs of various breeds by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and validate the precision and accuracy of DEXA technology in dogs.
Animals—103 clinically normal sexually intact adult dogs.
Procedure—In a cross-sectional study, Beagles, Pembroke Welsh Corgis, Golden Retrievers, Great Danes, Pointers, Rottweilers, and nonpurebred dogs received total body DEXA scans. For the validation portion of the study, the results of DEXA scans of 6 dogs were compared with values obtained by chemical analyses of tissues from euthanatized dogs to determine the accuracy of this modality in dogs.
Results—Results (coefficient of variation) of the precision tests ranged from 0.10% for lean tissue to 5.19% for fat tissue, whereas accuracy tests revealed a difference between percentage bone mineral content and ash values. Body composition differed by sex, such as higher lean tissue and bone mineral content in males within some breeds, and among breeds. Regardless of body size or weight, the percentage of body weight that was bone mineral ranged from 3 to 4.0%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this cross-sectional study provide valuable body composition data for clinically normal adult dogs, which may have research and clinical applications. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1295–1301)
Objective—To evaluate responses of cats with vaccine- associated sarcomas to treatment with surgery and radiotherapy, with or without adjunctive chemotherapy.
Animals—76 cats (78 tumors).
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed. Factors potentially associated with survival time, time to recurrence, and time to development of metastases were evaluated.
Results—Following excision, electron beam radiation, and, in some cases, chemotherapy, 32 (41%) cats experienced recurrence, and 9 (12%) cats developed metastases. One- and 2-year survival rates were 86 and 44%, respectively. Median survival time from onset of disease was 730 days (range, 30 to 2,014 days). Median disease-free interval was 405 days (range, 30 to 925 days). Cats that underwent only 1 surgery prior to radiotherapy had a lower recurrence rate than did cats that underwent > 1 surgery and had a significantly longer disease-free interval. Survival time and disease-free interval decreased as time between surgery and the start of radiotherapy increased. Cats that developed metastases had significantly shorter survival times and disease-free intervals than did cats that did not develop metastases. Castrated male cats had a significantly shorter survival time than did spayed female cats. Cats with larger tumors prior to the first surgery had shorter survival times. Twenty-six cats received chemotherapy in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. Whether cats received chemotherapy was not associated with recurrence rate, metastasis rate, or survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that excision followed by electron beam irradiation may be beneficial for treatment of cats with vaccine- associated sarcomas. Extent of excision prior to radiotherapy did not seem to be associated with recurrence rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1582–1589)
Objective—To determine clinical status and renal and hematopoietic function after kidney donation and identify risks associated with kidney donation in dogs.
Animals—14 dogs that underwent unilateral nephrectomy for kidney donation.
Procedures—Records were reviewed retrospectively to collect data regarding prenephrectomy clinicopathologic variables. Dogs were reexamined prospectively at various times after nephrectomy, and pre- and postnephrectomy CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio were compared. Six dogs had postnephrectomy renal volume determined ultrasonographically, and 4 of those dogs also underwent scintigraphic determination of glomerular filtration rate and renal biopsy.
Results—All dogs were clinically normal at the time of reevaluation. There were no significant differences between prenephrectomy and postnephrectomy values for BUN concentration or urine specific gravity. Mean postnephrectomy serum creatinine concentration was significantly greater than prenephrectomy concentration. Mean serum phosphorus concentration was significantly decreased after nephrectomy, and mean Hct, corpuscular volume, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly increased after nephrectomy. Postnephrectomy renal volume was greatest in dogs < 12 months old at the time of surgery. Mean postnephrectomy glomerular filtration rate was 2.82 ± 1.12 mL/kg/ min (1.28 ± 0.51 mL/lb/min). Renal biopsy specimens obtained during and after nephrectomy were histologically normal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Renal and hematopoietic variables were within reference ranges in dogs examined up to 2.5 years after unilateral nephrectomy. Compensatory renal hypertrophy was greatest in dogs < 1 year of age at donation. Donor age, along with histocompatability, may be an important factor in selecting dogs for kidney donation.
Objective—To study the musculoskeletal development of Great Dane puppies fed various dietary concentrations of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in fixed ratio by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), determination of serum insulin-like growth factor I and parathyroid hormone concentrations, radiography, and blood chemistry analysis results.
Animals—32 purebred Great Dane puppies from 4 litters.
Procedure—At weaning, puppies were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets. Blood was collected for biochemical analyses and hormone assays, and radiography and DEXA were performed through 18 months of age. Changes in body weight, bone mineral content, fat tissue weight, lean mass, result of serum biochemical analyses, hormonal concentrations, and radius lengths were analyzed through 18 months of age.
Results—Bone mineral content of puppies correlated positively with Ca and P content of the diets fed. Significant differences between groups in bone mineral content, lean mass, and body fat were apparent early. The disparity among groups increased until 6 months of age and then declined until body composition was no longer different at 12 months of age. Accretion rates for skeletal mineral content, fat, and lean tissue differed from each other and by diet group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ca and P concentrations in the diet of young Great Dane puppies are rapidly reflected in the bone mineral content of the puppies until 5 to 6 months of age, after which hormonal regulation adjusts absorption and excretion of these minerals. Appropriate Ca and P concentrations in diets are important in young puppies < 6 months of age. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1036–1047)