Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: W. J. Tranquilli x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the ability of flumazenil (FLU), butorphanol (BUT), and naloxone (NAL) to reverse the anesthetic effects of oxymorphone-diazepam in dogs.

Animals

6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were randomly assigned to each of 6 reversal treatment groups. In each experiment, oxymorphone (0.22 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and diazepam (0.22 mg/kg, IV) were given sequentially 15 minutes after glycopyrroiate (0.01 mg/kg, IV) administration. Physiologic saline solution (SAL; 1 ml), FLU (0.01 mg/kg), BUT (0.44 mg/kg), or NAL (0.06 mg/kg) alone, or FLU-BUT or FLU-NAL (same dosages) was given IV as a reversal treatment 15 minutes after oxymorphone-diazepam administration. An individual unaware of the treatment protocol recorded time to extubation, sternal recumbency, and walking.

Results

Time to extubation was significantly (P < 0.05) less with BUT, NAL, FLU-BUT, or FLU-NAL treatment, compared with that for SAL treatment. Time to sternal recumbency was less with BUT, NAL, FLU-BUT, or FLU-NAL treatment, compared with that for SAL treatment. Time to walking was less with FLU-BUT or FLU-NAL treatment, compared with that for SAL treatment.

Clinical Implications

Flumazenil, in combination with BUT or NAL, can be used to reverse the anesthetic effects of oxymorphone-diazepam in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:776–779)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to onychectomy were examined in 27 cats receiving different anesthetic regimens. Each cat was anesthetized with a dissociative-tranquilizer combination, and onychectomy was performed on 1 forefoot. One week later, each cat was anesthetized with the same dissociative-tranquilizer combination plus either butorphanol or oxymorphone, and onychectomy was performed on the other forefoot. Four treatment groups were studied: tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-1 cats, ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-2 cats, tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-3 cats, and ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-4 cats. All drug combinations were administered im. Central venous blood samples were drawn for catecholamine analysis after injection of drug(s), after onychectomy, and 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection. Tiletamine-zolazepam alone or tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol prevented epinephrine release for 2 hours after injection of drug(s). Norepinephrine concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline after onychectomy for tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and at 4 hours for tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol. After onychectomy, there was no difference in epinephrine values between tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone. Ketamine-acepromazine prevented increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations for up to 2 hours after surgery. Addition of butorphanol to ketamine-acepromazine decreased norepinephrine values immediately after onychectomy. Addition of oxymorphone to ketamine-acepromazine resulted in lower epinephrine values 4 hours after surgery.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Reversal of hemodynamic alterations induced by midazolam maleate (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), xylazine hydrochloride (0.44 mg/kg), and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg) with yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.25 mg/kg) was evaluated in 5 dogs. The dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane for instrumentation. With return to consciousness, baseline values were recorded, and the midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol mixture with glycopyrrolate was administered IV. Hemodynamic data were recorded for 60 minutes, and then a reversal mixture of yohimbine and flumazenil was administered IV. All variables were measured 1 minute from beginning of the reversal injection. Mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly (P < 0.05) above baseline at 60 minutes. Cardiac index and central venous pressure significantly decreased below baseline at 60 minutes. After reversal, mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure significantly decreased from baseline, whereas cardiac index, pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above baseline. Heart rate, cardiac index, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above the 60-minute value after reversal. Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) below the 60-minute value after reversal. The hemodynamic alterations accompanying midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol sedation-anesthesia may be rapidly reversed with a combination of yohimbine and flumazenil.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Six healthy Holstein calves were anesthetized with isoflurane in O2 and instrumented for hemodynamic studies. A saphenous artery was catheterized for measurement of blood pressure and withdrawal of blood for determination of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ), oxygen (PaO2 ), and arterial pH (pHa). Respiration was controlled throughout the study. The ecg and eeg were monitored continuously. A thermodilution catheter was passed via the right jugular vein into the pulmonary artery for determination of cardiac output and measurement of central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Baseline values (time 0) were recorded following recovery from isoflurane. Tiletamine-zolazepam (4 mg/kg)-xylazine (0.1 mg/kg) were administered iv immediately after recording baseline values. Values were again recorded at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes after injection. Changes in left ventricular stroke work index, Paco2 , and pHa were insignificant. Arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased above baseline at 5 minutes and then gradually decreased below baseline at 40 minutes, demonstrating a biphasic response. Values for pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and Pao2 were increased above baseline from 5 to 60 minutes. Stroke volume, stroke index, and right ventricular stroke work index were increased from 20 or 30 minutes to 60 minutes. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased at 10 minutes, returned to baseline at 20 minutes, and was increased again at 60 minutes. Heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, and rate pressure product were decreased at 5 minutes, and with the exception of cardiac output, remained so for 60 minutes. Cardiac output returned to the baseline value at 30 minutes. All calves recovered without complications. We concluded that tiletamine-zolazepam (4 mg/kg iv)-xylazine (0.1 mg/kg iv) is a safe and useful anesthetic regimen for use in calves.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Twenty-four Collies sensitive to the toxic effects of ivermectin, when administered at high dosages, were studied to evaluate the effects of repeated monthly treatment with an ivermectin beef-based formulation at amounts up to 10 times the dosage recommended for heartworm prevention in dogs. Collies were treated 3 times at 30-day intervals at rates of 12, 36, or 60 μg of ivermectin/kg of body weight, or with vehicle. Complete physical and neurologic examinations were performed on all dogs prior to the first treatment and after the final treatment. Clinical observations and ivermectin reaction scores were recorded daily for each dog throughout the study.

Clinical or neurologic signs characteristic of ivermectin toxicosis were not observed for any dog during the study. Single episodes of vomiting were recorded for 2 vehicle-treated dogs and 2 dogs treated with ivermectin at 12 μg/kg from 6 to 21 days after treatment. At the end of the study, all dogs were challenge-exposed with ivermectin at 120 μg/kg to reconfirm their sensitivity to this class of compounds. All dogs developed signs typical of ivermectin toxicosis during the subsequent 48- to 72-hour period.

Results of this study demonstrated that ivermectin can be administered repeatedly without adverse effects at rates up to 60 μg/kg (10 times the recommended use level) to Collies known to be sensitive to this drug.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Pharmacokinetic variables of etomidate were determined after iv administration of etomidate (3.0 mg/kg of body weight). Blood samples were collected for 6 hours. Disposition of this carboxylated imidazole best conformed to a 2- (n = 2) and a 3- compartment (n = 4) open pharmacokinetic model. The pharmacokinetic values were calculated for the overall best-fitted model, characterized as a mixed 2- and 3-compartmental model. The first and most rapid distribution half-life was 0.05 hour and a second distribution half-life was 0.35 hour. Elimination half-life was 2.89 hours, apparent volume of distribution was 11.87 ± 4.64 L/kg, apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 4.88 ± 2.25 L/kg, apparent volume of the central compartment was 1.17 ± 0.70 L/kg, and total clearance was 2.47 ± 0.78 L/kg/h.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research