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Objective

To determine prevalence and risk factors for decubital ulcers of the shoulder in sows.

Design

Descriptive cross-sectional study.

Sample population

All females of breeding age in a large confinement swine facility.

Procedure

1,916 females were examined for lesions of the skin over the tuber of the spine of the scapula and for body condition scoring. Observational data were combined with sow data (parity, date of farrowing, litter size) contained in computerized records.

Results

Decubital ulcers were observed in 8.3% of females, predominantly lactating sows. Ulcer prevalence was strongly associated with time after farrowing. Lesions apparently healed rapidly after weaning. Ulcer prevalence was associated with low body condition scores, but was not associated with parity.

Implications

Decubital ulcers are a multifactorial condition. Housing on concrete floors per se did not result in ulcers. Prolonged recumbency during parturition, reduced activity in early lactation, periparturient illness, thin body condition, moist skin, and floor type are potential risk factors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1058–1062)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of quaternary benzo(c)phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) against Salmonella spp and determine effects on growth performance, organism shedding, and gastrointestinal tract integrity in pigs inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

Sample—36 Salmonella isolates and twenty 5-week-old pigs.

Procedures—Minimum inhibitory concentration of QBAs against the Salmonella isolates was determined. Pigs were allocated to 4 groups and inoculated with Salmonella organisms. Pigs received diets supplemented with 1.5 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed, 0.75 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed, or 59.4 g of chlortetracycline/1,000 kg of feed or a nonsupplemented (control) diet. Pigs were weighed on day 0 and then weekly for 40 days. Fecal samples were collected to quantify Salmonella organisms. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was evaluated by measuring transepithelial resistance.

Results—In vitro, 9 of 36 (25%) Salmonella isolates were inhibited at 90 μg of QBAs/mL; all 36 were inhibited at 179 μg of QBAs/mL. Diets containing QBAs significantly decreased Salmonella spp shedding; shedding was lower 40 days after inoculation for pigs fed diets containing QBAs or chlortetracycline than for pigs fed the control diet. Growth performance was similar for pigs fed diets containing QBA or chlortetracycline. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was improved in pigs fed the diet containing 1.5 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QBAs and chlortetracycline decreased Salmonella spp shedding but did not differ with regard to growth performance. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was better, albeit not significantly, in pigs fed diets containing QBAs. Further investigation into the role of QBAs and their mechanism as an immunomodulator is necessary.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Lack of a standardized information technology management strategy has resulted in state and federal information systems evolving separately, rather than in tandem. Absence of an information management strategy will eventually affect regulatory program management, epidemiologic research, and domestic and international livestock trade. Producers will ultimately pay the price for the lack of regulatory coordination of US animal health and disease information. The longer the development of state and federal information technology management strategies is postponed, the more cost-, labor-, and time-intensive correcting the deficiency will be. Development of a national information resources management environment is the first step in constructing state and federal information technology strategies.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Pseudorabies (pr) outbreak-investigation forms from 10 states having the most pr-infected herds were evaluated for agreement in question response-data type, information intent, and outbreak information categories. A question randomly selected from an investigation form had 0.6304 probability of being unique to a single state, and 0.0062 probability of being common to all states. Analysis of outbreak forms, on the basis of information intent, revealed that the probability of a randomly selected question being derived from an information category unique to a single state was 0.0323, whereas the probability of a question being derived from an information category shared by all states was 0.1935. A telephone survey revealed that state pr control officials did not believe additional research on between-herd spread of pr was necessary to successfully complete the eradication program. However, officials believed a better understanding of pr risk factors would enhance program effectiveness and build producer confidence.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether withholding feed from pigs prior to slaughter had any effects on meat quality, percentage of pigs with Salmonella spp in cecal contents during slaughter, or percentage of pigs with lacerations of the gastrointestinal tract during slaughter.

Design—Split-plot design.

Animals—873 pigs.

Procedures—At the finishing barn, pigs were assigned to 30 pens. Feed withdrawal times were assigned to pens at random, and pigs in each pen were marketed in 3 groups. The first marketing group consisted of the 10 heaviest pigs in each pen, the second consisted of the next 10 heaviest pigs, and the third consisted of all remaining pigs.

Results—Withdrawing feed improved the redness score assigned to the meat but did not have any other significant effects on carcass composition or meat quality. The percentage of pigs with Salmonella spp in the cecal contents decreased from the first (73%) to the second (64%) to the third (52%) marketing group. However, isolation of Salmonella spp from cecal contents was not associated with feed withdrawal time or with pen prevalence of Salmonella shedding during the 2 months prior to slaughter. Feed withdrawal time and marketing group did not have any significant effects on overall prevalence of gastrointestinal tract lacerations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that withdrawal of feed from pigs prior to slaughter does not increase the prevalence of Salmonella colonization or the risk of carcass contamination associated with gastrointestinal tract lacerations during slaughter but only slightly enhances meat quality. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:497–502)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether withdrawing feed from pigs prior to slaughter had any effects on prevalence or severity of gastric ulcers.

Design—Split-plot design.

Animals—873 pigs.

Procedures—At the finishing barn, pigs were assigned to 30 pens. Feed withdrawal times (0, 12, or 24 hours) were assigned to pens at random, and pigs in each pen were marketed in 3 groups over a period of 4 weeks. The first marketing group consisted of the 10 heaviest pigs in each pen, the second consisted of the next 10 heaviest, and the third consisted of all remaining pigs. Feed was withheld from all pigs in each pen prior to removal of each marketing group. Thus, feed was withheld once, twice, or 3 times for pigs in the first, second, and third marketing groups, respectively.

Results—Feed withdrawal time was not significantly associated with ulcer score at the time of slaughter. Ulcer scores and prevalence of chronic damage were higher in the third marketing group, regardless of feed withdrawal time. Prevalence of severe damage, prevalence of chronic damage, and prevalence of esophageal constriction increased as carcass weight decreased. No pigs died of gastric ulceration.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that withdrawal of feed from pigs prior to slaughter does not increase damage to the stomach and that repeated feed withdrawal does not result in fatal gastric ulceration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:503–506)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To define temporal patterns and risk factors for development of decubital ulcers over the tuber of the spine of the scapula (tuber) of lactating sows.

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

147 late-gestation sows and gilts.

Procedure—

Females were examined for skin lesions over the tubers, and body condition score, depth of back fat and depth of soft tissues over the tuber (tuber depth) were determined (day 0). On days 5, 12, 18,40, 54, and 68, sows were examined for lesions over the tubers. Data on sow parity, date of farrowing, total number of pigs born/litter, and number of stillborn pigs/litter were obtained from farm records.

Results—

Ulcers were recorded for 33 of 206 (16%) shoulders by day 5. Peak prevalence (99/206; 48% of shoulders) was on day 12, and all ulcers had resolved by day 68. Ulcers were more common on the right shoulder. Considerable resolution of ulcers was evident between days 12 and 18, when sows still were housed in farrowing crates. Parity and tuber depth were significantly associated with ulcers and ulcer severity (size) on day 12.

Clinical Implications—

Decubital ulcers in lactating sows are a multifactorial condition. Factors such as floor type are important, but other physiologic and behavioral factors of periparturient swine, including body weight, body condition and mobility of lategestation animals, duration of farrowing, and patterns of recumbency and activity, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lesions. Housing sows on hard floors is not a sufficient cause of decubital ulcers over the scapula. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1173–1178)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms and serum antibodies to Salmonella sp in market-age pigs housed in barns with partially slotted floors or solid floors with openflush gutters.

Design

Cross-sectional study of prevalence.

Sample Population

Finishing-age pigs deemed by the producer to be within 1 month of slaughter.

Procedure

Fecal and serum samples were obtained from a group of 121 pigs housed in a barn with solid floors (31 fecal samples, 30 serum samples) and from a group of about 400 pigs housed on partially slotted floors (57 fecal samples, 64 serum samples). Fecal samples were submitted for bacteriologic culture to detect Salmonella organisms, and serum samples were tested for antibodies by use of ELISA.

Results

Salmonella agona was isolated from 26 of 31 (84%) fecal samples obtained from pigs housed in the open-flush gutter barn, compared with 5 of 57 (9%) fecal samples from pigs in the barn with slotted floors. Median value for optical density was higher for serum samples from pigs housed in the openflush gutter barn.

Clinical Implications

Housing of finishing-age swine in barns with open-flush gutters may contribute to increased shedding of Salmonella sp. Analysis of our observations indicated that repeated exposure to infected feces is important in prolonging fecal shedding by swine. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:386–389

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association