OBJECTIVE To evaluate cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of calves receiving 2 doses of a dual-adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2) before and after exposure to BHV1.
ANIMALS 24 Holstein steers negative for anti-BHV1 antibodies and proliferative cell-mediated immune responses against BHV1 and BVDV.
PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 3 groups. The vaccinated group (n = 10) received 2 doses of vaccine on days 0 and 21. Control (n = 10) and seeder (4) groups remained unvaccinated. Calves were commingled during the study except for the 3-day period (days 53 to 55) when seeders were inoculated with BHV1 (1.04 × 107 TCID50, IV) to serve as a source of virus for challenge (days 56 through 84). Rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were monitored, and blood and nasal specimens were obtained for determination of clinicopathologic and immunologic variables.
RESULTS After BHV1 challenge, mean rectal temperature and clinical illness scores were lower for vaccinates than controls. In vaccinates, antibody titers against BHV1 and BVDV2, but not BVDV1, increased after challenge as did extracellular and intracellular interferon-γ expression, indicating a T helper 1 memory response. Additional results of cell marker expression were variable, with no significant increase or decrease associated with treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Calves administered 2 doses of a killed-virus vaccine developed cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to BHV1 and BVDV, which were protective against disease when those calves were subsequently exposed to BHV1.
Objective—To determine whether a program of
human interaction or alterations in diet composition
would alter activity of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal
(HPA) axis in dogs housed in an animal shelter.
Procedure—Dogs were (n = 20) or were not (20)
enrolled in a program of regular supplemental human
interaction (20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks) involving
stroking, massaging, and behavioral training. In addition,
half the dogs in each group were fed a typical
maintenance-type diet, and the other half were fed a
premium diet. Plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations
were measured during weeks 0, 2, 4, and 8 and
before and after exposure to a battery of novel situations
during weeks 0 and 8.
Results—Plasma cortisol concentration was significantly
decreased by week 2, but plasma ACTH concentration
was not significantly decreased until week
8 and then only in dogs fed the premium diet.
Following exposure to novel situations, plasma cortisol
and ACTH concentrations were significantly
increased. However, during week 8, dogs enrolled in
the program of human interaction had significantly
lower increases in cortisol concentration than did
dogs not enrolled in the program.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that both a program of human interaction and
alterations in diet composition have moderating
effects on activity of the HPA axis in dogs housed in
an animal shelter and that activity of the HPA axis
may be increased for a longer period during shelter
housing than measurement of plasma cortisol concentration
alone would suggest. (J Am Vet Med