To evaluate clinical and biomechanical gait variables in a group of dogs before and after (for 1 year) total hip replacement.
16 dogs with degenerative joint disease of the coxofemoral joint secondary to hip dysplasia deemed candidates for total hip replacement.
Before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, each dog was trotted over a biomechanical force platform. Vertical force data evaluated for each stance phase of the treated and untreated hind limbs included peak force, impulse, and limb loading and unloading rates. Vertical peak and impulse data were also evaluated for the forelimbs. Measurements analyzed in the craniocaudal axis, divided into braking and propulsion phases, consisted of peak force and associated impulses. Also, orthopedic examination for each dog included subjective scoring for limb lameness at each evaluation period.
Most ground reaction forces (GRF) were significantly lower before surgery for the proposed treated, compared with the proposed untreated, limb. This difference between limbs continued through postoperative month 1. Also at 1 month, some treated limb values were significantly lower than preoperative values. By 3 to 6 months, treated limb GRF increased so that no significant difference between limbs could be found. Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion impulse values were significantly higher in the treated than untreated limb from the 6-month evaluation period through the remainder of the study. Braking component of the craniocaudal axes measurements was unchanged throughout the study.
GRF indicated that dogs of this study had significantly increased loading function of the treated hind limb by 6 months after unilateral total hip replacement. Data also indicated that some force was transferred from the untreated to treated hip over the study period. Loading rates also increased over the study period, indicating increased willingness to load the treated hip over time. Craniocaudal axis data ndicated no improvement in braking forces with coxofemoral joint replacement, suggesting that the coxofemoral joint with degenerative joint disease did not have altered braking performance at a trotting gait. Comparison of subjective lameness scores and objective GRF indicated that visual grading of coxofemoral joint lameness is limited. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1781–1785)
Objective—To develop a technique for laparoscopic
gastropexy in dogs and evaluate effects on stomach
position and strength of the adhesion between the
stomach and abdominal wall.
Animals—8 healthy dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and the
abdomen was insufflated with carbon dioxide. A
laparoscope was placed through a cannula inserted
on the abdominal midline caudal to the umbilicus.
Babcock forceps placed through a cannula inserted
lateral to the right margin of the rectus abdominus
muscle were used to exteriorize the pyloric antrum, a
longitudinal incision was made through the serosa
and muscular layer of the pyloric antrum, and the
seromuscular layer of the pyloric antrum was sutured
to the transversus abdominus muscle. After surgery,
positive-contrast gastrography was used to evaluate
stomach position and the onset of gastric emptying,
and ultrasonography was used to assess stomach
wall activity and mobility. Dogs were euthanatized 1
month after surgery, and tensile strength of the adhesion
Results—In all dogs, stomach position and the onset of
gastric emptying were normal 25 days after surgery, and
the pyloric antrum was firmly attached to the abdominal
wall 30 days after surgery. Mean ± SD ultimate load of
the adhesion in tension was 106.5 ± 45.6 N.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic
gastropexy technique described in the present
study could be performed quickly and easily by an
experienced surgeon, resulted in a strong fibrous
adhesion between the stomach and abdominal wall,
and appeared to cause minimal stress to the dogs.
(Am J Vet Res 2001;62:871–875)
Objective—To develop a laparoscopic-assisted technique
for cystopexy in dogs.
Animals—8 healthy male dogs, 7 healthy female
dogs, and 3 client-owned dogs with retroflexion of
the urinary bladder secondary to perineal herniation.
Procedure—Dogs were anesthetized, and positive
pressure ventilation was provided. In the healthy male
dogs, the serosal surface of the bladder was sutured
to the abdominal wall. In the healthy female dogs, the
serosa and muscular layer of the bladder were incised
and sutured to the aponeurosis of the external and
internal abdominal oblique muscles. Dogs were monitored
daily for 30 days after surgery.
Results—All dogs recovered rapidly after surgery and
voided normally. In the female dogs, results of urodynamic
(leak point pressure and urethral pressure profilometry)
and contrast radiographic studies performed
30 days after surgery were similar to results obtained
before surgery. Cystopexy was successful in all 3 client-owned
dogs, but 1 of these dogs was subsequently
euthanatized because of leakage from a colopexy performed
at the same time as the cystopexy.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The laparoscopic-assisted cystopexy technique was quick, easy
to perform, and not associated with urinary tract
infection or abnormalities of urination. (Am J Vet Res
Limb symmetry was evaluated by measuring ground reaction forces in 2 groups of normal-gaited dogs at a trot. Data were collected from 2 groups of 21 dogs trotted at dog/handler velocities of 1.25 to 1.55 m/s and 1.85 to 2.05 m/s, respectively. Of these dogs, 9 participated in both groups to allow comparison of data at both velocities. Additionally, 16 of the dogs in group 1 were measured in 2 directions of movement to determine whether directional dependence was present. Collected data were then applied to 3 described symmetry indices.
Each index was easy to calculate, but all had limitations. A major limitation was variation in magnitude of ground reaction forces measured between the different axes and the effect of this variation on precision of the derived indices. Vertical ground forces provided the most consistent symmetry indices, in part because of their large magnitude. The indices indicated that no dog had perfect right-to-left symmetry during a trotting gait. Statistical differences were not found in any of the measurements of directional dependence. Likewise, comparing symmetry data in dogs trotted at both velocities indicated no significant differences in any axis.
However, further analysis of the data revealed the actual amount that a variance attributable to right-left limb variation was negligible. Most of the variance was attributable to trial variation. Thus, the aforementioned indices, which use nonconsecutive footfall methods to evaluate limb symmetry, actually measure principally trial variation and not limb-to-limb variation.