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Summary

During a 3½-year period, cardiac arrhythmias were identified in 6 of 67 horses diagnosed with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis (dpj). Arrhythmias were detected by auscultation of irregular cardiac rhythm and subsequently were characterized by electrocardiographic evaluation. Arrhythmias included frequent second-degree atrioventricular block, ventricular ectopic depolarizations, and atrioventricular conduction disturbance. In 4 horses, arrhythmias resolved with recovery from the primary problem. One horse died suddenly 66 hours after admission, and another was euthanatized at 72 hours after admission.

Clinical and laboratory data from horses with dpj and cardiac arrhythmias (group l) were compared with findings for horses with dpj and without arrhythmias (group 2). Group-1 horses had significantly (P <0.05) higher serum bicarbonate concentration and serum creatine kinase activity.

Normal sinus rhythm returned in all 4 group-1 horses that recovered from dpj, suggesting a causal relationship between dpj and the arrhythmias. Two group-1 horses were necropsied, and both had myocarditis. The cause of these lesions was not determined.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Medical records of 21 horses with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease were reviewed, and history, signalment, clinical signs, radiographic signs, clinicopathologic data, and therapeutic response were determined. Most affected horses were used as pleasure horses, and for the most part, remained at pasture when not in use. The mean age (± SD) was 13.7 ± 3.6 years. Clinical signs included intermittent nasal discharge, cough, tachypnea, labored expiratory effort, and crackles and wheezes on auscultation. Radiography frequently revealed interstitial patterns in the lung fields; in horses with chronic disease, pulmonary overinflation was evident. Hemogram was usually normal, and transtracheal wash fluid was characterized by nondegenerate neutrophils.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Hematologic and rheologic variables were examined in a group of 13 horses with intestinal colic and a control group of 6 horses. All horses had been recently transported to the veterinary teaching hospital, and blood samples were obtained during initial examination. There were no significant differences in blood neutrophil count or plasma fibrinogen concentration between the groups, and PCV was significantly increased in horses with intestinal colic. Cell filterability was measured by passing uniform concentrations of blood, erythrocytes, and neutrophils through micropore filters. There were no significant differences between the control and intestinal colic groups in filterability of erythrocytes. Significant (P < 0.05) prolongation in filterability of blood and neutrophils was observed in the group of horses with intestinal colic, compared with the control group. This neutrophil change, indicative of decreased neutrophil deformability, corresponded with severity of the illness. Horses that failed to survive the intestinal. colic episode had significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged blood and neutrophil filterability, compared with horses that survived intestinal colic. These findings indicate that deformability of neutrophils decreases in horses with intestinal colic, possibly a result of endotoxin-induced activation. This change can further impede microvascular blood flow that is altered in association with intestinal ischemia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine whether horses with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease (SPAOPD) have increased concentrations of antigen-specific IgG and IgE in tracheal lavage fluid, compared with values in clinically normal horses.

Animals

8 horses (6 females, 2 geldings; 6 Quarter Horses, 2 Appaloosas), 14 to 23 years old and with previous diagnosis of SPAOPD, served as the principal group; 8 horses (2 females, 6 geldings; 1 Quarter Horse, 7 Thoroughbreds), 6 to 9 years old, with no evidence of respiratory tract disease, served as the control group.

Procedure

Data were collected twice during a 1- year period: when all SPAOPD-affected horses were manifesting clinical signs of disease (July), and when all SPAOPD-affected horses appeared clinically normal (February). On each occasion, clinical evaluations were performed and blood and tracheal lavage fluid samples were collected. Transtracheal lavage supernatant was evaluated for mold antigen-specific IgG and IgE concentrations.

Results

Median IgE relative antibody unit (RAU) values were significantly higher in control, compared with principal, horses. The SPAOPD-affected horses had increased concentrations of specific IgG for only 1 antigen, during winter sample collection.

Conclusion

Antigen-specific IgG and IgE RAU values were not increased in SPAOPD-affected horses when these horses were manifesting clinical signs of disease. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1408–1411)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of horses in Louisiana by assessing the signalment, history, environmental factors, clinical signs, and treatment of such horses.

Design—

Epidemiologic mail survey.

Sample Population—

83 of 240 veterinarians contacted by mail agreed to take part in the survey. Veterinarians contacted were listed as mixed-animal or equine practitioners in the 1991/1992 directory of the Louisiana Veterinary Medical Association or had submitted a specimen from a horse to the Louisiana Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory within the past 2 years.

Procedure—

The survey contained 47 questions designed to elicit information from owners and veterinarians about horses reported to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Questions were included to evaluate age, breed, sex, vaccination history, respiratory disease history, environment of primary activity, level of exercise, primary residence (pasture or stall), condition of pasture or barn, type and condition of feed, clinical signs, concurrent conditions, and treatment regimen prescribed. Information from the returned forms was analyzed by using a microcomputer program designed for epidemiologic data.

Results—

Of the 83 veterinarians who agreed to participate, 31 returned 71 completed questionnaires for horses affected with COPD. Most affected horses were mature in age, kept on pasture, and had developed clinical signs during the summer months. The most consistent clinical signs were dry coughing, slight serous nasal discharge, labored expiratory effort, and flaring nostrils.

Clinical Implications—

Summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be precipitated by factors different than those associated with the traditionally diagnosed form of COPD and, thus, successful management measures may also vary. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:248-251)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 116 horses admitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Center between Jan 1, 1984 and Dec 31, 1991 with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis (dpj) were reviewed. The prevalence of laminitis was 28.4% (33/116; 95% confidence interval: 20.2 to 36.6%). The prevalence of dpj and DPJ-associated laminitis did not appear to vary significantly by year during the study period. Anamnesis, physical examination, clinicopathologic data, and initial treatment recorded at the time of admission were reviewed to determine risk factors associated with development of laminitis associated with dpj. A trend of increasing prevalence of laminitis with increasing weight was observed. Using a multiple logistic regression model, horses weighing ≥ 550 kg were approximately twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses weighing < 550 kg (P = 0.048). Horses with hemorrhagic reflux observed at the time of admission were nearly twice as likely to develop laminitis than horses without hemorrhagic reflux (P = 0.022).

Treatments administered prior to admission or at our clinic did not significantly affect development of laminitis, except for administration of heparin to prevent laminitis. Of 33 horses that developed laminitis associated with dpj, 2 had laminitis at the time of admission. These 2 horses were excluded from analysis of the effects of heparin administered as prophylaxis for laminitis; neither horse was treated with heparin. The proportion of horses that developed laminitis among horses that received heparin (0.0%; 0/12) was significantly (P = 0.018) less than that among horses that did not receive heparin (29.8%; 31/104). Because of the small number of horses that received heparin and the retrospective design of this study, the clinical importance of this association could not be determined.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association