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Objective—To establish a safe and effective technique for the endoscopic examination and biopsy of snake lungs by use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—17 adult ball pythons (Python regius).

Procedures—The right lung of each anesthetized snake was transcutaneously penetrated at a predetermined site. Endoscopic lung examination was objectively scored, and 3 lung biopsies were performed. Tissue samples were evaluated histologically for diagnostic quality. One year later, 11 of the 17 snakes again underwent pulmonoscopy and biopsy; specimens were placed in various fixatives to compare preservation quality. All 17 snakes were euthanatized and necropsied.

Results—No major anesthetic, surgical, or biopsy-associated complications were detected in any snake. In 16 of 17 pythons, ease of right lung entry was satisfactory to excellent, and views of the distal portion of the trachea; primary bronchus; intrapulmonary bronchus; cranial lung lobe; and faveolar, semisaccular, and saccular lung regions were considered excellent. In 1 snake, mild hemorrhage caused minor procedural difficulties. After 1 year, pulmonoscopy revealed healing of the previous transcutaneous lung entry and biopsy sites. Important procedure-induced abnormalities were not detected at necropsy. Diagnostic quality of specimens that were shaken from biopsy forceps into physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution before fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde or neutral-buffered 10% formalin was considered good to excellent.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope, lung examination and biopsy can be performed safely, swiftly, and with ease in ball pythons. Biopsy specimens obtained during this procedure are suitable for histologic examination.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril would lower systemic arterial and glomerular capillary pressure and reduce the magnitude of renal injury in a canine model of renal insufficiency.

Animals—18 adult dogs that had renal mass reduced by partial nephrectomy.

Procedure—After surgical reduction of renal mass and baseline measurements, dogs in 2 equal groups received either placebo (group 1) or enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; group 2) for 6 months.

Results—Values for systemic mean arterial blood pressure determined by indirect and direct measurement after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1. During treatment, monthly urine protein-to-creatinine ratios were consistently lower in group 2 than in group 1, although values were significantly different only at 3 months. At 6 months, significant reduction in glomerular capillary pressure in group 2 was detected, compared with group 1, but glomerular filtration rate in group 2 was not compromised. Glomerular hypertrophy, assessed by measurement of planar surface area of glomeruli, was similar in both groups. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly less in group 2, compared with group 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme was effective in modulating progressive renal injury, which was associated with reduction of glomerular and systemic hypertension and proteinuria but not glomerular hypertrophy. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme may be effective for modulating progression of renal disease in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:321–327)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research