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Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effect of late gestation, age, and parity on material properties of third metacarpal (MCIII) cortical bone in mares.

Animals

8 healthy mares (treatment group) that died or were euthanatized within 24 hours after parturition because of foaling complications and 6 age-matched, healthy, nonpregnant mares (control group).

Procedures

After random assignment for mechanical testing and microradiography, the dorsal half of transverse mid-diaphyseal sections of each MCIII bone was divided into lateral, dorsal, and medial regions. Cylinders of bone from each of the 3 regions were tested in compression in a single cycle to failure. Contact microradiographic views were taken of 100-µm-thick sections prepared from methylmethacrylate-embedded transverse dorsal region specimens, which were further divided into periosteal, intracortical, and endosteal regions for assessment of bone mineral density and porosity.

Results

Postpartum mares had lower yield strain in the dorsal and medial regions and failure strain in the medial region. Increasing parity was associated with decreasing elastic modulus in the dorsal region and yield stress and failure stress in the lateral region. Age and parity were positively correlated (r = 0.865; P = 0.0001), but significant correlations were not found between treatment group and age or between treatment group and parity. Increasing age and parity were associated with increasing porosity in the periosteal region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

On the basis of the material properties evaluated for MCIII cortical bone in late pregnancy, any increased risk for fractures in mares in late gestation may be related to parity or age or both, and less likely to pregnancy per se. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:182–187)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare variables for screw insertion, pushout strength, and failure modes for a headless tapered compression screw inserted in standard and oversize holes in a simulated lateral condylar fracture model.

Sample Population—6 pairs of third metacarpal bones from horse cadavers.

Procedure—Simulated lateral condylar fractures were created, reduced, and stabilized with a headless tapered compression screw by use of a standard or oversize hole. Torque, work, and time for drilling, tapping, and screw insertion were measured during site preparation and screw implantation. Axial load and displacement were measured during screw pushout. Effects of drill hole size on variables for screw insertion and screw pushout were assessed by use of Wilcoxon tests.

Results—Drill time was 59% greater for oversize holes than for standard holes. Variables for tapping (mean maximum torque, total work, positive work, and time) were 42%, 70%, 73%, and 58% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Variables for screw pushout testing (mean yield load, failure load, failure displacement, and failure energy) were 40%, 40%, 47%, and 71% less, respectively, for oversize holes, compared with standard holes. Screws could not be completely inserted in 1 standard and 2 oversize holes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Enlarging the diameter of the drill hole facilitated tapping but decreased overall holding strength of screws. Therefore, holes with a standard diameter are recommended for implantation of variable pitch screws whenever possible. During implantation, care should be taken to ensure that screw threads follow tapped bone threads.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To test whether femoral ostectomy level, subtrochanteric bone mass removal, and stem-size selection significantly affect stem positioning in canine total hip replacement, and to determine ability of the femoral stem component to restore geometry of the normal femoral head and neck.

Sample Population

Femurs from 8 adult mixed-breed canine cadavers.

Procedure

Femurs were systematically prepared, using 8 combinations of 3 surgical preparation techniques that included level of ostectomy (cervical isthmus vs lesser trochanter), subtrochanteric bone block removal, and femoral stem size (recommended, undersized). Computer-aided analysis of specimen photographs was used to evaluate femoral head offset and position and variability of femoral stem positioning for each of the preparation combinations.

Results

Original femoral head offset and position were reconstructed to within a mean of 0.052 and 0.031 cm, respectively, using an undersized femoral stem after ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter. Implantation of an undersized femoral stem after subtrochanteric bone block removal improved ability to centralize the distal tip of the implant and reduce the angle between the femoral diaphyseal and implant axes. Ostectomy at the level of the cervical isthmus tended to force femoral implants into a varus position, and ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter tended to force implants into a valgus position.

Conclusions

Geometry of normal canine femurs was most closely reconstructed by implantation of an undersized femoral component after ostectomy at the level of the lesser trochanter. Implantation of an undersized femoral component after subtrochanteric bone block removal resulted in the best alignment and centralization of the stem. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1071–1079)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To provide an accurate and detailed description of the laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen of horses positioned in dorsal recumbency and to compare those observations with laparoscopic anatomy of standing horses. The effects of laparoscopy and positional changes on arterial blood pressure and blood gas values also were investigated.

Design

Descriptive anatomic study.

Sample Population

Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, and 2 stallions) to record the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen in dorsal recumbency.

Procedure

Feed was withheld from all horses for 36 hours. Horses, under general anesthesia, were examined in horizontal and inclined positions (head-up and head-down). Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was used, arterial blood pressure was continuously monitored, and samples for arterial blood gas measurements were taken at intervals.

Results

The main structures of diagnostic relevance observed in the caudal region of the abdomen were the urinary bladder, mesorchium and ductus deferens (left and right), left and right vaginal rings, insertion of the pre-pubic tendon, random segments of jejunum and descending colon, pelvic flexure of the ascending colon, body of the cecum, and cecocolic fold. The main structures observed in the cranial region of the abdomen were ventral surface of the diaphragm, falciform ligament and round ligaments of the liver, ventral portion of the left lateral, left medial, quadrate, and right lateral lobes of the liver, spleen, right and left ventral colons, sternal flexure of the ascending colon, apex of the cecum, and stomach.

Conclusions

Alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory function in response to pneumoperitoneum and various positional changes indicated the need for continuous and throrough anesthetic monitoring and support. Comparison of anatomic observations made in dorsally recumbent, inclined horses with those reported for standing horses should enable practitioners to make patient positioning decisions that best suit access to specific visceral structures. Development of special instrumentation for manipulation of the viscera in horses, particularly the intestinal tract, would increase the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of laparoscopy during dorsal recumbency. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:923–931)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare the strength of the sutured linea alba, in vitro, using 2 suture patterns.

Animals

12 clinically normal llamas.

Procedure

2 incisions in the linea alba of 12 llamas were closed with a simple continuous or inverted cruciate pattern, and tissue was harvested after 10 days. In 6 llamas, the simple continuous line was intact; the inverted cruciate specimens contained 6 sutures. In 6 llamas, 1 knot was excised in the simple continuous pattern to simulate a failed line; the cruciate pattern contained 5 knots. Tissue sections were taken from cranial, between, and caudal to the linea alba incisions to compare fascial thickness. The sutured specimens were mounted in a mechanical testing system and tested to failure. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of suture pattern and incisional position on mechanical properties.

Results

Significant differences were not found between suture patterns or between location for yield force, failure force, or yield strain, whereas failure strain was lower for the intact simple continuous pattern than the inverted cruciate pattern (P = 0.003). From histomorphometric analysis, the caudal tissue specimens were significantly thinner than the middle tissue specimen cranial to the umbilicus (P = 0.006).

Conclusion

There was no significant difference in monotonic breaking strength of the linea alba sutured with the simple continuous or inverted cruciate pattern.

Clinical Relevance

These results justify the use of the simple continuous pattern over the cruciate pattern for ventral midline closure in llamas because of the ease of placement and speed. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:938–942)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research