Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Susan Kennedy x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Summary:

Persistent hypercalcemia attributable to parathyroid gland hyperplasia was identified in 6 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism. Clinical signs included polydipsia (n = 4), polyuria (n = 4), and signs caused by cystic calculi (n = 3). Abnormal clinical pathologic findings included hypercalcemia (mean, 13.6 mg/dl; range, 12.6 to 14.7 mg/dl; n = 6), hypophosphatemia (mean, 2.2 mg/dl; range, 1.4 to 2.9 mg/dl; n = 6), high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (mean, 222 IU/L; range, 161 to 286 IU/L; n = 3), and isosthenuria (mean, 1.012; range, 1.006 to 1.017; n = 6). Serum parathyroid hormone concentration was within the reference range or high (mean, 23 pmol/L; range, 7 to 119 pmol/L; reference range, 1.5 to 13 pmol/L) in all dogs.

At surgery, the number of large parathyroid glands was variable, being limited to 1 gland in 3 dogs, 2 glands in 2 dogs, and 4 glands in 1 dog. All visibly large parathyroid glands were surgically removed from each dog. Serum calcium concentration decreased into or below the reference range within 72 hours of surgery in all dogs, confirming the diagnosis of primary parathyroid disease. Multiple nodules of adenomatous hyperplasia were identified in each dog. All 6 dogs were treated with vitamin D and calcium carbonate following surgery. The dog from which all 4 parathyroid glands were removed has remained eucalcemic for more than 1 year with vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D and calcium administration was discontinued within 4 to 12 weeks of surgery in the remaining 5 dogs. These dogs remained eucalcemic without vitamin D supplementation. Two dogs are still alive 12 and 35 months after surgery; 3 dogs died 3 to 4 years after surgery because of unrelated medical causes.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of intermittent oral administration of ponazuril on immunoconversion against Sarcocystis neurona in horses inoculated intragastrically with S neurona sporocysts.

Animals—20 healthy horses that were seronegative for S neurona–specific IgG.

Procedures—5 control horses were neither inoculated with sporocysts nor treated. Other horses (5 horses/group) each received 612,500 S neurona sporocysts via nasogastric tube (day 0) and were not treated or were administered ponazuril (20 mg/kg, PO) every 7 days (beginning on day 5) or every 14 days (beginning on day 12) for 12 weeks. Blood and CSF samples were collected on day – 1 and then every 14 days after challenge for western blot assessment of immunoconversion. Clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) were monitored, and tissues were examined histologically after euthanasia.

Results—Sera from all challenged horses yielded positive western blot results within 56 days. Immunoconversion in CSF was detected in only 2 of 5 horses that were treated weekly; all other challenged horses immunoconverted within 84 days. Weekly administration of ponazuril significantly reduced the antibody response against the S neurona 17-kd antigen in CSF. Neurologic signs consistent with EPM did not develop in any group; likewise, histologic examination of CNS tissue did not reveal protozoa or consistent degenerative or inflammatory changes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of ponazuril every 7 days, but not every 14 days, significantly decreased intrathecal anti–S neurona antibody responses in horses inoculated with S neurona sporocysts. Protocols involving intermittent administration of ponazuril may have application in prevention of EPM.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the clinical, endoscopic, and serologic features of an outbreak of besnoitiosis in 2 donkey operations in northeastern Pennsylvania and to report the outcome of attempted treatment of 1 naturally infected individual.

Design—Observational study.

Animals—29 donkeys (Equus asinus) in northeastern Pennsylvania.

Procedures—Donkeys were examined for lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis in an outbreak investigation. Information was collected regarding the history and signalment of animals on each premises. Rhinolaryngoscopy was performed to identify nasopharyngeal and laryngeal lesions. Serum samples were collected for immunofluorescent antibody testing and immunoblotting for Besnoitia spp. Skin biopsy samples were obtained from 8 animals with lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis for histologic examination. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for Besnoitia spp was performed on tissue samples from 5 animals.

Results—Besnoitiosis was confirmed in 6 of the 8 suspected cases. The most common lesion site was the nares, followed by the skin and sclera. Donkeys with clinical signs of disease had higher serum antibody titers and tested positive for a greater number of immunoblot bands than did donkeys without clinical signs of disease. All animals evaluated by PCR assay tested positive. Putative risk factors for disease included age and sex. Ponazuril was not effective at treating besnoitiosis in a naturally infected donkey.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of clinical and serologic features of besnoitiosis in donkeys will assist clinicians in the diagnosis and prevention of this disease in donkey populations. Besnoitiosis may be an emerging disease of donkeys in the United States.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, and hepatic histopathologic features and outcome for dogs with probable ketoconazole-induced liver injury.

ANIMALS

15 dogs with suspected ketoconazole-induced liver injury that underwent liver biopsy.

PROCEDURES

Medical record data were summarized regarding signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic and hepatic histopathologic findings, concurrent medications, ketoconazole dose, treatment duration, and outcome.

RESULTS

Median age and body weight were 8.2 years (range, 5 to 15 years) and 13.0 kg (28.6 lb; range, 8.2 to 38.0 kg [18.0 to 83.6 lb]), respectively. The most common breed was Cocker Spaniel (n = 5). All dogs received ketoconazole to treat cutaneous Malassezia infections. Median daily ketoconazole dose was 7.8 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb; range, 4.4 to 26.0 mg/kg [2.0 to 11.8 mg/lb]), PO. Treatment duration ranged from 0.3 to 100 cumulative weeks (intermittent cyclic administration in some dogs); 6 dogs were treated for ≤ 10 days. Common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. All dogs developed high serum liver enzyme activities. Hepatic histopathologic findings included variable lobular injury, mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and conspicuous aggregates of ceroid-lipofuscin–engorged macrophages that marked regions of parenchymal damage. Five dogs developed chronic hepatitis, including 3 with pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of the 10 dogs reported to have died at last follow-up, survival time after illness onset ranged from 0.5 to 165 weeks, with 7 dogs dying of liver-related causes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings for dogs with hepatotoxicosis circumstantially associated with ketoconazole treatment suggested proactive monitoring of serum liver enzyme activities is advisable before and sequentially after initiation of such treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains a disease with little therapeutic advancement. Rapamycin modulates the mTOR pathway, preventing and reversing cardiac hypertrophy in rodent disease models. Its use in human renal allograft patients is associated with reduced cardiac wall thickness. We sought to evaluate the effects of once-weekly delayed-release (DR) rapamycin over 6 months on echocardiographic, biochemical, and biomarker responses in cats with subclinical, nonobstructive HCM.

ANIMALS

43 client-owned cats with subclinical HCM.

METHODS

Cats enrolled in this double-blinded, multicentered, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial were allocated to low- or high-dose DR rapamycin or placebo. Cats underwent physical examination, quality-of-life assessment, blood pressure, hematology, biochemistry, total T4, urinalysis, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and cardiac troponin I at baseline and days 60, 120, and 180. Fructosamine was analyzed at screening and day 180. Echocardiograms were performed at all time points excluding day 120. Outcome variables were compared using a repeated measures ANCOVA.

RESULTS

No demographic, echocardiographic, or clinicopathologic values were significantly different between study groups at baseline, confirming successful randomization. At day 180, the primary study outcome variable, maximum LV myocardial wall thickness at any location, was significantly lower in the low-dose DR rapamycin group compared to placebo (P = .01). Oral DR rapamycin was well tolerated with no significant differences in adverse events between groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results demonstrate that DR rapamycin was well tolerated and may prevent or delay progressive LV hypertrophy in cats with subclinical HCM. Additional studies are warranted to confirm and further characterize these results.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association