Objective—To describe clinical signs, diagnostic findings,
and outcome in dogs with idiopathic intrahepatic
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with portal
hypertension of intra-abdominal origin were reviewed.
Dogs with intra-abdominal portal hypertension of vascular
causes or with hepatic histopathologic changes
consistent with severe diffuse hepatobiliary disease
were excluded. History and results of physical examination,
clinicopathologic tests, diagnostic imaging
studies, histologic examination, and treatment were
summarized. Outcome was determined in 26 dogs.
Results—Dogs were referred most often because of
ascites, intermittent vomiting or diarrhea, and polydipsia
of several months' duration. Microcytosis, high
serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase
activities, hepatic dysfunction, urine specific gravity ≤
1.021, and abdominal transudate were the predominant
clinicopathologic features. Microhepatia, abdominal
effusion, and multiple anomalous venous anastomoses
were the major findings of diagnostic imaging.
Hepatic histopathologic changes were consistent
with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension and
were indistinguishable from those of dogs with surgically
created portocaval anastomosis. Outcome was
determined for 19 dogs released from hospital; 13
dogs remained healthy with mostly palliative treatment
for periods of 5 months to 9 years.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The clinical
signs, clinicopathologic test results, portal pressure,
and gross appearance of the liver of dogs with idiopathic
noncirrhotic portal hypertension may be identical
to those of dogs with cirrhosis; therefore liver
biopsy is crucial. Because the prognosis for idiopathic
noncirrhotic portal hypertension is generally favorable,
owners of affected dogs should be discouraged from
choosing euthanasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;
Objective—To examine acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus.
Animals—48 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 17 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Blood was collected and serum ketone, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. Indicators of acid-base status were calculated and compared between groups.
Results—Serum ketone and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic than in healthy dogs, but there was no difference in venous blood pH or base excess between groups. Anion gap and strong ion difference were significantly higher and strong ion gap and serum bicarbonate concentration were significantly lower in the diabetic dogs. There were significant linear relationships between measures of acid-base status and serum ketone concentration, but not between measures of acid-base status and serum lactate concentration. Serum insulin concentration did not differ significantly between groups, but diabetic dogs had a wider range of values. All diabetic dogs with a serum ketone concentration > 1,000 μmol/L had a serum insulin concentration < 5 μU/mL. There were strong relationships between serum ketone concentration and serum glucagon-insulin ratio, serum cortisol concentration, and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, expressed as a percentage of serum ketone concentration, decreased as serum ketone concentration increased.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations.
Case Description—A 21-month-old spayed female Border Collie was examined because of progressive right forelimb lameness, signs of pain, and subcutaneous edema. The dog lived in a fenced yard in Tampa, Fla, that contained a small area of marshy terrain.
Clinical Findings—The subcutis and intermuscular fascia contained multiple cystic cavities filled with larval cestodes (plerocercoids or spargana) and cloudy red fluid. Parasites were identified morphologically and by DNA sequence analysis as pseudophyllidean cestodes, most likely Sparganum proliferum. The dog developed a progressively worsening fever, dyspnea, mature neutrophilia, and hypoproteinemia. Septic pleuritis and peritonitis complicated the later stages of the disease.
Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with praziquantel, fenbendazole, and nitazoxanide failed to control the proliferation and dissemination of larval cestodes. The dog was euthanatized after 133 days of treatment. At necropsy, numerous parasitic tissue cysts were present in the subcutis and intermuscular fascia; these cysts were most abundant in the soft tissues of the forelimbs and cervical musculature. The pleural and peritoneal cavities contained multiple larval cestodes and were characterized by neutrophilic inflammation and secondary bacterial infection.
Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that clinical signs associated with proliferative sparganosis in dogs may be rapidly progressive and that the condition may be refractory to antiparasitic treatment. Veterinarians should be aware of this zoonotic, water-borne agent.
Objective—To characterize the signalment, clinical
signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment
of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in
Animals—113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma
of the apocrine glands of the anal sac.
Procedure—Data on signalment, clinical signs, and
staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment
modality for potential association with survival
Results—Sex distribution was approximately equal
(54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs
underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation
therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment.
Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range,
0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy
alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212
days) than those receiving other treatments (median,
584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly
shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those
that underwent surgery as part of their treatment
(median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 had
significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than
dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 (median, 584 days).
Hypercalcemia was identified in 27% (n = 29) of dogs,
and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median,
256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic
(median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary
metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median,
219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary
metastasis (median, 548 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike most
previous reports, this study revealed an approximately
equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more
favorable prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:
Objective—To determine immunoreactivity of matrix
metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13 in cartilaginous
tumors of dogs, correlate expression of MMP
with histologic grade of tumors and clinical outcome
of dogs, and compare MMP immunoreactivity
between chondrosarcomas and chondromas.
Sample Population—Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded
tissues obtained from samples of naturally occurring
chondrosarcomas (n = 31) and chondromas (8) of
dogs that were submitted to our veterinary medical
Procedure—Histologic sections from each sample
were stained with H&E and monoclonal antibody to
MMP-1, -3, and -13 by use of an avidin-peroxidase
immunohistochemical technique. For each section, histologic
grade (I, II, or III) and immunohistochemical
expression (0, 1, 2, or 3) were evaluated. Clinical outcome
was obtained from medical records or interviews
with referring veterinarians and scored as a good outcome,
moderate outcome, or poor outcome.
Correlations among variables and differences between
chondrosarcomas and chondromas were analyzed.
Results—Samples from chondrosarcomas had significantly
higher immunoreactivity of MMP-1 and -13,
compared with immunoreactivity in samples from
chondromas. In chondrosarcomas, a significant positive
correlation (r, 0.386) was found between MMP-1
and -13 immunoreactivities, and a significant negative
correlation (r, –0.390) was detected between MMP-3
and -13 immunoreactivities.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A significant
increase in expression of collagenases (MMP-1 and -
13) in chondrosarcomas, compared with expression in
chondromas, suggests that collagenases may play an
important role in tumor progression, and possibly
metastasis, in chondrosarcomas of dogs. (Am J Vet
Objective—To evaluate the clinical and pathologic
characteristics of mammary duct ectasia in dogs.
Animals—51 dogs with mammary duct ectasia.
Procedure—Information regarding body condition,
history, number and location of affected mammary
glands, appearance of lesions, surgical treatment,
nonsurgical treatment, and evidence of recurrence or
development of mammary neoplasia was obtained
from surveys sent to referring veterinarians. Results
of information from examination of histologic sections
and referring veterinarians were evaluated for all
mammary duct ectasia biopsies performed between
1992 and 1999.
Results—Duct ectasia was the primary diagnosis in
51 of 1,825 (2.8%) mammary biopsy specimens and
comprised 48% of nonneoplastic mammary diseases.
Affected dogs were evenly distributed over a range of
1 to 13 years of age, with a mean age at the time of
diagnosis of 6.1 ± 3.1 years. All dogs were female (31
sexually intact, 20 spayed); 10 of 26 had whelped.
Duct ectasia was described as nodular (26 dogs), cystic
(13), and multiglandular (11) and located in caudal
(31) more often than cranial (14) or middle glands (10).
Ectasia recurred in 3 dogs. One dog had a history of
previously excised mammary adenocarcinoma; another
subsequently developed mammary carcinoma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duct ectasia
affected mature, sexually intact and spayed female
dogs over a wide age range. Certain breeds were
affected more commonly than expected. Increased
risk for mammary neoplasia was not evident. Duct
ectasia should be considered as a cause for mammary
enlargement, especially in young dogs or when its
cystic nature is evident. Mastectomy is usually curative,
and neoplasia should be ruled out in dogs with
ectasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1303–1307)
Objective—To determine the distribution for limbs and bones in horses with fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and relationships with findings on palmarodorsal radiographic images.
Sample Population—Proximal sesamoid bones obtained from both forelimbs of cadavers of 328 racing Thoroughbreds.
Procedure—Osteophytes; large vascular channels; and fracture location, orientation, configuration, and margin distinctness were categorized by use of high-detail contact palmarodorsal radiographs. Distributions of findings were determined. Relationships between radiographic findings and fracture characteristics were examined by use of χ2 and logistic regression techniques.
Results—Fractures were detected in 136 (41.5%) horses. Biaxial fractures were evident in 109 (80%) horses with a fracture. Osteophytes and large vascular channels were evident in 266 (81%) and 325 (99%) horses, respectively. Medial bones typically had complete transverse or split transverse simple fractures, indistinct fracture margins, > 1 vascular channel that was > 1 mm in width, and osteophytes in abaxial wing and basilar middle or basilar abaxial locations. Lateral bones typically had an oblique fracture and distinct fracture margins. Odds of proximal sesamoid bone fracture were approximately 2 to 5 times higher in bones without radiographic evidence of osteophytes or large vascular channels, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Biaxial fractures of proximal sesamoid bones were common in cadavers of racing Thoroughbreds. Differences between medial and lateral bones for characteristics associated with fracture may relate to differences in fracture pathogeneses for these bones. Osteophytes and vascular channels were common findings; however, fractures were less likely to occur in bones with these features.