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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of number of blood samples and sampling times on plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m pentetate (Tc99mP) and orthoiodohippurate sodium I 131(OIH).

Animals—20 dogs and 14 cats.

Procedure—Plasma clearances of OIH and Tc99mP were calculated by use of a 2-compartment model, on the basis of a 12-point curve as a reference method. Plasma clearance was calculated by use of all possible combinations of 4 to 11 samples. Time schedule yielding the smallest difference from the reference method was considered to be optimal. Regression analysis was performed between the 12-point model and models using a reduced number of samples.

Results—SD of the difference between the 12-point clearance and the models with reduced numbers of samples increased when the number of samples decreased. The SD of the difference between 12-point clearance and 4-point clearance was 4.17 ml/min for OIH and 0.94 ml/min for Tc99mP in dogs and 0.45 ml/min for OIH and 0.11 ml/min for Tc99mP in cats. Optimal schedules were distributed logarithmically and included an early sample at 5 or 10 minutes, a late sample at 2.5, 3, 4, or 5 hours for OIH, and a late sample at 4 or 5 hours for Tc99mP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Plasma clearances of OIH and Tc99mP can be accurately calculated in dogs and cats by use of a single-injection 2-compartment pharmacologic model with a reduced number of blood samples, resulting in an acceptable margin of error. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:280–285)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether increases in BUN and serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations, which have been reported to develop after surgical bilateral thyroidectomy in hyperthyroid cats, also develop after treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine and methimazole.

Design

Prospective, clinical trial.

Animals

58 hyperthyroid cats.

Procedure

Urine specific gravity, SCr, BUN, and serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations were determined before and 30 and 90 days after treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine, methimazole, or surgical bilateral thyroidectomy.

Results

Mean SCr and BUN concentrations determined 30 and 90 days after treatment were significantly higher than those measured before treatment. Mean SCr, BUN, and T4 concentrations were not different among groups before treatment or 30 and 90 days after treatment.

Clinical Implications

Reduction of serum T4 concentrations after treatment of hyperthyroidism may result in azotemia in older cats with chronic renal disease. Treating azotemic hyperthyroid cats with methimazole until it can be determined whether correction of the hyperthyroid state will exacerbate the azotemia may be prudent. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:875–878)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate clinical and pathologic findings in Golden Retrievers with renal dysplasia.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

12 young Golden Retrievers with chronic renal disease.

Procedure

Medical records of affected dogs were evaluated on the basis of clinical findings, laboratory test results, and histologic findings.

Results

Common clinical findings were vomiting, anorexia, weight loss, polydipsia, and polyuria. Common laboratory findings were azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercholesterolemia, isosthenuria, proteinuria, hypercalcemia, and nonregenerative anemia. Many affected dogs also had urinary tract infections, and some were hypertensive. Renal lesions consisted of moderate-to-severe interstitial fibrosis and mild-to-moderate lymphoplasmacytic interstitial inflammation. Cystic glomerular atrophy and periglomerular fibrosis were prominent features in most affected dogs. Fetal lobulation of glomeruli, adenomatoid hyperplasia of collecting tubule epithelium, and primitive mesenchymal connective tissue were histologic features suggestive of renal dysplasia.

Clinical Implications

Renal dysplasia should be suspected in Golden Retrievers < 3 years old with clinical findings and laboratory results indicative of renal disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:792–797)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Exogenous creatinine clearance, urinary electrolyte excretions, calcium and phosphorus balance, serum cholesterol concentration, arterial blood pressure, and body weight were evaluated in dogs with chronic renal failure that were fed 2 commercial diets. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf, exogenous creatinine clearance = 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal controls were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks at which time hematologic and biochemical evaluations and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a phosphorus-restricted diet containing 16% protein and then reevaluated after 8 weeks.

The dogs in this study had hematologic and biochemical abnormalities typical of crf. Urine absolute and fractional excretion of electrolytes was higher in dogs with crf than in controls and was affected by diet. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in dogs with crf and increased in those dogs after feeding the low protein diet. Changes in dietary sodium intake did not affect arterial blood pressure. The phosphorus-restricted diet did not affect serum amino terminal parathyroid hormone concentration in either group. Control dogs lost body weight, whereas dogs with crf gained weight when fed the low protein diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have the same biochemical abnormalities and response to dietary restriction of protein and phosphorus as has been previously reported in dogs with experimentally induced crf. Restriction of dietary sodium may not decrease arterial blood pressure in some dogs with crf. Dogs with crf may be predisposed to hypercholesterolemia when fed restricted protein commercial diets, and reduction of dietary phosphorus intake may be inadequate to control renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with crf.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Amino acid profiles and serum albumin and serum total protein concentrations were evaluated in dogs with renal disease. Nine dogs ranging in age from 1 to 15 years were identified as having mild to moderate chronic renal failure (crf; exogenous creatinine clearance, 0.5 to 2.13 ml/kg of body weight/min). These dogs and a group of 10 clinically normal control dogs, were fed a diet containing 31% protein for 8 weeks, at which time serum and urine imino acid assays and clearance studies were performed. All dogs then were fed a diet containing 16% protein for 3 weeks and then reevaluated.

Chronic renal failure was associated with mild abnormalities in serum concentrations of amino acids. When fed the higher protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum concentrations of glutamine, leucine, proline, and serine and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine and 3-methylhistidine than clinically normal control dogs. When fed the low protein diet, dogs with crf had lower serum serine concentrations and higher serum concentrations of cystathionine, phenylalanine, and 3-methylhistidine. Urine excretion of amino acids in all dogs on both diets was low, and dogs with crf had lower renal clearances of 3-methylhistidine than control dogs. There were no significant differences in concentrations of serum albumin and total solids between either group, regardless of diet.

We concluded that dogs with mild to moderately severe crf have mild abnormalities of serum free amino acid concentrations, but renal conservation of essential amino acids is not impaired.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on the urethral pressure profile in female dogs.

Animals—10 healthy female dogs.

Procedure—Urethral pressure profilometry was performed in awake dogs, during anesthesia with sevoflurane at 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0% end-tidal concentration, and during infusion of propofol at rates of 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mg/kg/min. A consistent plane of anesthesia was maintained for each anesthetic protocol. Maximum urethral pressure, maximum urethral closure pressure, functional profile length, and functional area were measured.

Results—Mean maximum urethral closure pressure of awake dogs was not significantly different than that of dogs anesthetized with propofol at all infusion rates or with sevoflurane at 1.5 and 2.0% end-tidal concentration. Functional area in awake dogs was significantly higher than in anesthetized dogs. Functional area of dogs during anesthesia with sevoflurane at 3.0% end-tidal concentration was significantly lower than functional area for other anesthetic protocols. Individual differences in the magnitude of effects of propofol and sevoflurane on urethral pressures were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sevoflurane is an alternative to propofol for anesthesia in female dogs undergoing urethral pressure profilometry. Use of these anesthetics at appropriate administration rates should reliably distinguish normal from abnormal maximum urethral closure pressures and functional areas. Titration of anesthetic depth is a critical component of urodynamic testing. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1288–1292)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research