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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the antigen-specific immune response to dietary proteins in cats and evaluate whether there was a qualitative or quantitative difference between the responses to dietary proteins when those proteins were fed unprocessed or as part of a canned diet.

Animals—14 healthy domestic shorthair cats.

Procedure—Cats were fed 2 dietary proteins (soy and casein) either as unprocessed aqueous suspensions or as part of canned diets for 21 days. Serum IgG and IgA and salivary IgA were assayed by indirect ELISA, and antigen-specific proliferation of mesenteric lymph node-derived lymphocytes was determined.

Results—Robust serum IgG and IgA responses to dietary proteins were elicited, irrespective of the form in which they were fed. Salivary IgA responses to unprocessed proteins were not detected. However, a significant salivary IgA response to the protein isolated from the canned casein diet was observed in cats fed canned casein but not in those fed unprocessed casein. Lymphocyte proliferation to the antigens was slight, and there were no significant differences between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats develop robust serum IgG and IgA responses to dietary proteins when fed as either aqueous suspensions or as part of canned diets. For certain proteins, there may be an increase and a qualitative difference in the immunogenicity of canned diets, compared with unprocessed proteins. Canned diets may not be ideal for management of cats with enteritis. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1427–1433)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess feasibility of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in awake dogs, determine whether specific variables associated with the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing can be recognized, and evaluate the safety and tolerability of FEES.

ANIMALS 6 healthy client-owned large- and giant-breed adult dogs.

PROCEDURES A topical anesthetic was applied to the nasal passage of each dog, and a fiberoptic endoscope was passed transnasally until the tip of the scope was positioned in the oropharynx. All dogs voluntarily drank colored water followed by consumption of a commercial canned diet and then a kibble diet mixed with food color. During each swallow, laryngeal and pharyngeal anatomic structures were evaluated and depth of bolus flow prior to the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was assessed. Evidence of bolus retention in the vallecula or pyriform sinuses and laryngeal penetration of the bolus were recorded.

RESULTS FEES was completed without major adverse events and was tolerated well by all 6 dogs. Mild, self-limiting epistaxis was noted for 2 dogs. The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were observed in all dogs; movement of food boluses through the esophagus was observed in 2 dogs, and food boluses in the stomach were visible in 1 dog. Pharyngeal and laryngeal function was considered physiologically normal in all dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE FEES appeared to be a feasible diagnostic tool for use in large- and giant-breed dogs. Studies are warranted in dogs with oropharyngeal dysphagia to determine whether FEES can be tolerated and whether it can augment videofluoroscopy findings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Statement of the Problem

A dog was examined because of inappetence and unusual feeding behavior that developed following surgical removal of a plastic foreign body from the pylorus 6 months earlier. The dog's unusual feeding behavior consisted of stretching its body, eructation, curling its lips, turning its head away from the owner, and running to hide in the bedroom closet before ingesting any food.

Signalment

The dog was a 1-year-old 32-kg (70-lb) sexually intact female German Shepherd Dog.

History

The owner had raised the dog from birth after it was whelped by one of the owner's bitches. The dog reportedly

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining technique (mZN), a direct immunofluorescence detection procedure (DIF), and 3 commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal specimens from kittens.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—416 fecal specimens collected from 104 randomly selected domestic shorthair kittens (8 to 16 weeks of age) that were naturally exposed to Cryptosporidium spp.

Procedure—Fresh fecal specimens were collected once daily for 4 consecutive days and processed immediately. Sensitivities of mZN, DIF, and 3 commercial EIAs (EIA-1, EIA-2, and EIA-3) were estimated and compared.

Results—EIA-2 had the highest sensitivity on day 1 (89%), followed by EIA-1 (80%), and mZN (72%). EIA- 3 had the lowest sensitivity on day 1 (15%). EIA-2, EIA- 1, and mZN had similar sensitivities after 2 consecutive fecal examinations (approx 90%). Determination of specificities was compromised by the small number of cats that had negative results for all tests (n = 3).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that EIA-2 and EIA-1 had the highest sensitivities when only a single fecal specimen was examined; however, mZN and EIA-1 had similar sensitivities when 2 consecutive fecal specimens were examined. The higher costs of EIA-2 and EIA-1 may be offset by the tests’ high sensitivity, simplicity of use, and ease of interpretation and by savings in technician time. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1549–1553)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—2 captive sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) were evaluated because of acute onset of vomiting, mucoid diarrhea, lethargy, and anorexia 1 week after eating live trout from a northern California reservoir.

Clinical Findings—In 1 of the bears, a CBC and serum biochemical analyses revealed mild anemia, mild eosinophilia, moderate lymphopenia, moderate hypoalbuminemia, and high serum G-glutamyltransferase activity. Ultrasonographic examination of the same bear revealed ascites and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Histologic examination of gastrointestinal tract biopsy specimens revealed moderate to severe lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. Ova of Nanophyetus salmincola, the trematode vector of Neorickettsia helminthoeca (a rickettsial organism that causes salmon poisoning disease), were detected in fecal samples from both bears.

Treatment and Outcome—The bears were treated with oxytetracycline, doxycycline, praziquantel, and famotidine. Within 1 week after initiation of treatment, the appetite and fecal consistency of each bear were considered normal. Fecal ova shedding began 4 days after onset of clinical signs and ceased 9 days later.

Clinical Relevance—Salmon poisoning disease can be rapidly fatal in untreated animals, but if diagnosed early and treated appropriately, full recovery can be achieved. Domestic dogs and captive exotic bears are highly susceptible to clinical disease after ingestion of trematode-infected fish. Salmon poisoning disease may develop outside the geographic range in which the causative organism is endemic as a result of the transplantation of infected fish for sport fishing; veterinarians practicing in areas where infected fish may be transplanted should be aware of appropriate diagnostic and treatment protocols.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency and types of complications, prognostic factors, and primary diseases affecting clinical outcome associated with administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—75 cats that received TPN for ≥ 12 hours.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, problems at initial evaluation, physical examination findings, weight and changes in weight while receiving TPN, duration in the hospital before initiation of TPN, the type of TPN catheter used, duration of TPN administration, and final diagnosis. Laboratory results obtained immediately prior to TPN and at 24 and 96 hours following initiation of TPN administration were compared.

Results—Reports of weight loss at initial evaluation, hyperglycemia at 24 hours, or diagnosis of chronic renal failure were significantly associated with increased mortality rate. Greater serum albumin concentrations prior to and at 96 hours following TPN administration were significantly associated with decreased mortality rate. Mechanical and septic complications were infrequent and not associated with increased mortality rate. Most cats had multiple diseases. The overall mortality rate was 52%; among 75 cats, 36 recovered, 23 were euthanatized, and 16 died as a result of their primary illness or complications associated with their illness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated high mortality rate in cats maintained on TPN that had multiple concurrent diseases associated with a poor prognosis. Indicators of poor prognosis included a history of weight loss, hyperglycemia at 24 hours following TPN administration, hypoalbuminemia, and chronic renal failure. (J Am Vet med Assoc 2004;225:242–250)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

4 cats (6 to 9 months old) were evaluated because of clinical signs consistent with a portosystemic shunt (PSS).

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Among the 4 cats, 3 had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, head pressing, disorientation, and obtundation. One cat was evaluated because of urethral obstruction; a retrieved urethral stone was determined to have urate composition. Clinicopathologic findings (hypoproteinemia, low BUN concentration, and high serum bile acids concentration) were consistent with a PSS in all cats. A diagnosis of intrahepatic PSS (IHPSS) was made for all cats on the basis of ultrasonographic and CT findings.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

All cats underwent percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE). No major intraprocedural complications were encountered, and all cats were discharged from the hospital. For the 3 cats that were presented with neurologic signs, an evaluation performed at 12, 14, or 48 months after the procedure revealed resolution of the neurologic signs, and owners reported that the behavior of each cat appeared normal. One cat that initially had neurologic and gastrointestinal signs had lower urinary tract signs after PTCE and developed an acquired extrahepatic PSS.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although IHPSSs in cats are uncommon, the outcomes of PTCE for the 4 cats of the present report suggested that this treatment may benefit cats with an IHPSS. No short-term complications were encountered, and all cats had improvement in clinical signs following PTCE, although an acquired extrahepatic PSS was later identified in 1 cat. Further investigation of the use of endovascular techniques for the treatment of IHPSSs in cats and other species is warranted.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine associations among infectious pathogens and diarrheal disease in dogs in an animal shelter and demonstrate the use of geographic information systems (GISs) for tracking spatial distributions of diarrheal disease within shelters.

Sample Population—Feces from 120 dogs.

Procedure—Fresh fecal specimens were screened for bacteria and bacterial toxins via bacteriologic culture and ELISA, parvovirus via ELISA, canine coronavirus via nested polymerase chain reaction assay, protozoal cysts and oocysts via a direct fluorescent antibody technique, and parasite ova and larvae via microscopic examination of direct wet mounts and zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation.

ResultsSalmonella enterica and Brachyspira spp were not common, whereas other pathogens such as canine coronavirus and Helicobacter spp were common among the dogs that were surveyed. Only intestinal parasites and Campylobacter jejuni infection were significant risk factors for diarrhea by univariate odds ratio analysis. Giardia lamblia was significantly underestimated by fecal flotation, compared with a direct fluorescent antibody technique. Spatial analysis of case specimens by use of GIS indicated that diarrhea was widespread throughout the entire shelter, and spatial statistical analysis revealed no evidence of spatial clustering of case specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided an epidemiologic overview of diarrhea and interacting diarrhea-associated pathogens in a densely housed, highly predisposed shelter population of dogs. Several of the approaches used in this study, such as use of a spatial representation of case specimens and considering multiple etiologies simultaneously, were novel and illustrate an integrated approach to epidemiologic investigations in shelter populations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1018–1024)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To validate the use of high-resolution manometry (HRM) in awake, healthy dogs and compare the effects of bolus type (liquid vs solid) and drug treatment (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [SS] vs cisapride) on esophageal pressure profiles.

ANIMALS 8 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, each dog received SS (10 mL) IV, and HRM was performed during oral administration of 10 boluses (5 mL each) of water or 10 boluses (5 g each) of canned food. Cisapride (1 mg/kg in 60 mL of SS) was subsequently administered IV to 7 dogs; HRM and bolus administration procedures were repeated. Two to 4 weeks later, HRM was repeated following administration of SS and water and food boluses in 4 dogs. Pressure profile data were obtained for all swallows, and 11 outcome variables were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS After SS administration, predicted means for the esophageal contractile integral were 850.4 cm/mm Hg/s for food boluses and 660.3 cm/mm Hg/s for water boluses. Predicted means for esophageal contraction front velocity were 6.2 cm/s for water boluses and 5.6 cm/s for food boluses after SS administration. Predicted means for residual LES pressure were significantly higher following cisapride administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HRM was feasible and repeatable in awake healthy dogs of various breeds and sizes. Stronger esophageal contractions and faster esophageal contraction velocity occurred during solid bolus and liquid bolus swallows, respectively. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure increased significantly following cisapride administration. Esophageal contractions and bolus transit latency should be further evaluated by HRM in clinically dysphagic dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize a genetic component to cricopharyngeal dysfunction (CD) in Golden Retrievers.

Animals—117 dogs.

Procedure—The CD phenotype was determined by videofluoroscopy, and dogs were classified as affected if the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) did not open, if there were morphologic abnormalities of the UES, or if opening of the UES was delayed for ≥ 6 videofluoroscopic frames (0.2 seconds) after closure of the epiglottis. All survey radiographic and videofluoroscopic studies were reviewed by the same radiologist.

Results—Of the 117 dogs (47 males and 70 females) with a CD phenotype determined via videofluoroscopy, 21 dogs (18.0%) had abnormalities of the UES (affected). Of these 21 dogs, 9 were males (19.1% of all males) and 12 were females (17.1% of all females). The heritability of CD in a threshold model was estimated as 0.61, which established that CD could be passed from parent to offspring. Results of complex segregation analysis suggested that a single recessive allele of large effect contributed to the expression of this disease in Golden Retrievers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The determination that CD is inherited in Golden Retrievers is an important step in providing information for veterinarians attending dogs with this disorder. Breeders also require this information to make informed breeding decisions. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:344–349)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research