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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the features, underlying causes, results of diagnostic testing, and treatment of pneumothorax in dairy cattle.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—30 dairy cattle.

Procedure—Medical records of all cattle with a diagnosis of pneumonia were reviewed. For cattle with pneumothorax, information was obtained pertaining to signalment, anamnesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Survival data were compared between cattle with pneumonia with or without pneumothorax.

Results—Pneumothorax was associated with bronchopneumonia in 18 cattle, interstitial pneumonia in 7 cattle, pharyngeal or laryngeal trauma in 3 cattle, and neonatal respiratory distress in 2 calves. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus was the most commonly detected infectious agent. Eighteen of 30 (60%) cattle survived; 8 were euthanatized and 4 died. Survival rate was 81% for cattle with pneumonia without pneumothorax during the same time period. Pneumothorax was a significant risk factor for failure to survive to discharge from the hospital for cattle with underlying chronic bronchopneumonia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pneumothorax in dairy cattle appears to occur most commonly in association with chronic bronchopneumonia. Cattle of both sexes and all ages can be affected. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:732–735)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 4-month-old 127.5-kg (280.5-lb) Holstein heifer calf (patient 1) and a 4-month-old 174-kg (382.8-lb) Holstein bull calf (patient 2) of high genetic value were examined because of signs of respiratory tract disease (dyspnea, wheezing, and coughing) of 2 and 3 months’ duration, respectively, that did not respond to antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory treatment. Patient 1 was born with assistance owing to malpresentation and dystocia. The birth of patient 2 was unobserved.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

For both calves, results of a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, thoracic radiography and CT, and nasotracheal endoscopy led to the diagnosis of tracheal collapse and stenosis secondary to perinatal rib fractures. Neither calf had evidence of substantial lower airway disease.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Both calves were discharged from the hospital with the recommendation that they be individually housed in cool, well-ventilated stalls with no access to headlocks. The clinical signs abated, and surgical intervention was not pursued in either patient. Both patients grew as expected and achieved reproductive maturity, with patient 1 becoming an oocyte donor and patient 2 being purchased by a commercial bull stud company. Patient 1 was reevaluated at 21 months old, and patient 2 was reevaluated at 26 months old. Results of follow-up thoracic radiographic (patient 1) and nasotracheal endoscopic (both patients) examinations indicated an anatomically normal trachea with no evidence of collapse or stenosis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This report was the first to describe successful resolution of tracheal collapse and stenosis secondary to perinatal rib fracture in dairy calves without surgical intervention.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether Salmonella spp could be isolated from the environment of free stall dairies in Wisconsin without any history of clinical salmonellosis and determine the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of any Salmonella isolates recovered from the environment.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Study Population—20 free stall dairies with no history of clinical salmonellosis.

Procedures—Dairy owners completed a questionnaire regarding management and production practices. Multiple swab samples were obtained from throughout the free stall facilities and submitted for bacterial culture for Salmonella spp. Odds ratios were calculated to compare herd-level risk factors between dairies from which Salmonella organisms were isolated and herds from which Salmonella organisms were not isolated.

ResultsSalmonella organisms were isolated from 9 of the 20 (45%) dairies. Salmonella serotype Meleagridis was isolated from 4 dairies, S Meleagridis and S Kentucky were isolated from 2 dairies, S Meleagridis and S Cyprus were isolated from 1 dairy, S Cerro was isolated from 1 dairy, and S Corvallis was isolated from 1 dairy. All isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. None of the potential risk factors analyzed demonstrated a significant association with an increased likelihood of isolating Salmonella spp.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental Salmonella contamination was demonstrated on free stall dairies with no history of clinical salmonellosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:574–577)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate antiviral activity and toxicity of recombinant human interferon alfa-2a in calves persistently infected with noncytopathic type 1 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

Animals—5 Holstein heifers, 4 to 12 months of age.

Procedures—Calves persistently infected with noncytopathic type 1 BVDV were treated with recombinant human interferon alfa-2a every other day for 12 weeks. Viral loads were measured during the treatment period and compared with pre- and post-treatment values. Complete physical examinations were performed weekly, and calves were observed daily for signs of systemic illness. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical analyses were performed before, during, and after the treatment period. Because calves developed anemia during the treatment period, bone marrow biopsy specimens were collected. Antirecombinant human interferon alfa-2a antibody concentrations in serum samples obtained before, during, and after the treatment period were measured by use of an ELISA.

Results—Recombinant human interferon alfa-2a had no antiviral activity against noncytopathic type 1 BVDV in persistently infected calves. All calves developed microcytic anemia during the treatment period that persisted for up to 13 weeks after cessation of treatment. Anti-interferon antibodies were detected during the treatment period and persisted for at least 2 weeks after cessation of treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of lack of in vivo antiviral activity against BVDV, recombinant human interferon alfa-2a has little promise as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of BVDV infection, at least in persistently infected cattle. Furthermore, treatment was associated with adverse immunologic and hematologic effects. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:865–870)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of recombinant human interferon alfa-2a and recombinant human interferon alfa-B/D hybrid against cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in vitro.

Sample population—Primary bovine testicular cells and Mardin Darby bovine kidney cells.

Procedures—To evaluate cytotoxicity, cells were added to serial dilutions of each interferon. To evaluate antiviral activity of each interferon, interferons were serially diluted 1:10, and tissue culture cells were added; virus was then added at 3 time points. Prevention of viral infection by interferon was defined as failure to induce cytopathologic effect for VSV, IBRV, and cytopathic BVDV and failure to detect virus immunohistochemically for cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV.

Results—No evidence of cytotoxicity in either cell line was detected after incubation with interferon alfa- 2a or interferon alfa-B/D. However, reduced growth rates of tissue culture cells were detected for each interferon when undiluted interferon was tested. Comparable and profound antiviral activities against cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV were evident for each interferon. Interferon alfa-2a and interferon a-B/D had comparable antiviral activities against VSV. Neither interferon had antiviral activity against IBRV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The safety and marked in vitro antiviral activity against noncytopathic BVDV, cytopathic BVDV, and VSV suggest that interferons alfa-2a and alfa-B/D may be useful for treatment of natural disease after infection with these viruses. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:871–874)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 7-day-old female alpaca was examined because of an acute onset of diffuse central neurologic deficits.

Clinical Findings—Diagnostic imaging with CT and MRI identified an intracranial cyst occupying approximately one-third to one-half of the dorsal portion of the cranial cavity, markedly displacing the cerebral hemispheres bilaterally.

Treatment and Outcome—Initial surgical management via trephination and needle drainage was only transiently effective at resolving the neurologic signs. Craniotomy and drainage and removal of the cyst lining resulted in a sustained improvement in neurologic status, and the cria remained clinically normal and well grown at follow-up 5 months after surgery.

Clinical Relevance—This report represented the first description of the successful treatment of an intracranial cyst in a New World camelid.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe signalment; surgical findings; short-, medium-, and long-term outcome; and recurrence rate for cattle undergoing celiotomy because of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) and to analyze risk factors associated with outcome and recurrence.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—31 dairy cattle with JHS.

Procedures—Medical records were analyzed. Follow-up information was obtained from owners of cattle surviving until discharge.

Results—18 of 31 (58%) cattle undergoing celiotomy survived to initial discharge. Fifteen (48%) and 13 (42%) were alive 6 and 12 months after discharge, respectively. All 5 deaths within 12 months after discharge were attributed to JHS recurrence. Survival time was 12 to 85 months for the 13 long-term survivors. Six of 7 that died > 12 months after celiotomy did so for reasons unrelated to JHS. Recurrence rate among short-term survivors was 7 of 18; 1 of these survived long-term. A significant proportion of affected cattle were Brown Swiss, compared with proportions for other breeds. Manual massage of the bowel to break down clots was associated with a significantly higher short-term survival rate than was en-terectomy or enterotomy. Medium- and long-term survival rate was higher in cattle referred 24 to 48 hours after onset of signs. Length of obstructing blood clots was not associated with outcome. Other factors were not significantly associated with recurrence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Survival rates were higher than those in other reports. Prompt celiotomy and resolution by use of manual massage were associated with higher survival rates. In this population, JHS recurred in 7 of 18 short-term survivors.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association