Case Description—A 2.8-kg (6.1-lb) 4-month-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was referred for evaluation of bilateral, subcutaneous lumbar masses that were presumed to be the kidneys.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination findings included 2 mobile, nonpainful, 3×3-cm, bilaterally symmetric masses in the dorsolateral lumbar region. Abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, and CT confirmed bilateral body wall defects with renal herniation. Serum biochemistry profile, urinalysis, and excretory urography confirmed normal renal function.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy, reduction of the kidneys, repair of the body wall defects, bilateral nephropexy, and ovariohysterectomy were performed. There were no perioperative complications.
Clinical Relevance—Lumbar hernia has not been reported previously in a cat. It is important for veterinarians to be aware that although rare, lumbar hernia should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for a lumbar mass or signs of chronic lumbar pain in cats.
Objective—To determine diagnostic accuracy of a compartmented bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing plate (CCSP) for detection of bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates.
Sample—62 frozen, previously characterized bacterial isolates from canine urine cultures and 147 canine urine samples.
Procedures—The study was conducted in 2 phases: preliminary assay validation (phase 1) and diagnostic validation (phase 2). For phase 1, the frozen bacterial isolates were revitalized and tested with the CCSP and with standard aerobic microbiological culture (SAMC). For phase 2, the urine samples were tested with the CCSP and SAMC in parallel.
Results—For phase 1, after 24 hours of culture, 46 of 62 (74%) bacterial isolates had growth on the CCSP and all (100%) had growth in SAMC. For bacterial isolates with growth, the CCSP allowed correct identification of 45 of 46 (98%) isolates. Isolates yielding no growth on the CCSP were gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus spp [n = 7] and Enterococcus spp ). In phase 2, the overall diagnostic accuracy of the CCSP, compared with SAMC, was 94% (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 99%). The positive predictive value was 98% and negative predictive value was 92%. Susceptibility results for enrofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as determined with the CCSP had greatest concordance with those determined by SAMC (71% and 96%, respectively), compared with other antimicrobial susceptibilities.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the CCSP led to accurate exclusion of UTI in dogs without a UTI but was less reliable for diagnosis of UTI, particularly infections caused by gram-positive cocci. Standard aerobic microbiological culture remains the gold standard for detection of UTI in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the precision of an ELISA for measurement of serum cortisol concentration (SCC) in dogs, assess agreement between this ELISA and 2 validated chemiluminescence assays (CLAs), and evaluate the clinical implications of any bias associated with this ELISA when measuring SCC in dogs.
DESIGN Evaluation study.
SAMPLE 75 stored, frozen serum samples from client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay precision was evaluated by measuring SCC of pooled serum samples. Agreement with standard methods was evaluated with Spearman rank correlation, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analysis to compare SCCs obtained with the ELISA and the 2 CLAs. An error grid was used to evaluate identified bias.
RESULTS Within-laboratory coefficients of variation for pooled serum samples with low, medium, and high SCCs were 21.4%, 28.9%, and 13.0%, respectively. There was a high correlation between ELISA results (for all samples combined) and results of the 2 CLAs (CLA 1, r = 0.96; CLA 2, r = 0.97), but constant and proportional biases between the ELISA and CLAs were present at all concentrations. Clinically important disagreement between ELISA results and CLA results occurred in 16 of 63 (25%) samples, particularly with low and high SCCs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the rate of clinical disagreement between the ELISA and CLAs was sufficiently high to recommend that equivocal results obtained with the ELISA be confirmed by a reference laboratory. Further evaluation of analytic performance of the ELISA should focus on samples with very high and very low SCCs.