Objective—To determine effects of therapeutic dosages of aspirin, carprofen, deracoxib, and meloxicam on platelet function and systemic prostaglandin concentrations in healthy dogs.
Animals—10 hound-crossbred dogs.
Procedures—Aspirin (10 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h), carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), deracoxib (2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), and a placebo were administered for 7 days in a random order to each of 10 healthy dogs; there was a 21-day washout period between subsequent treatments. One-stage prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen concentration, and plasma concentrations of thromboxane (TX)B2 and 6-keto prostaglandin (PG)F1α were measured before and after treatment administration. Platelet function was assessed by use of a platelet-function analyzer and aggregation.
Results—Aspirin, carprofen, and meloxicam did not significantly affect platelet function. Deracoxib caused a mild decrease in platelet aggregation induced by 50μM ADP. Platelet number, Hct, PT, aPTT, and plasma TXB2 and 6-keto PGF1α concentrations were unchanged after NSAID administration. Meloxicam administration resulted in a significant decrease in fibrinogen concentration, but results remained within the laboratory reference interval.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of commonly used NSAIDs at therapeutic dosages in healthy dogs did not alter plasma TXB2 and 6-keto PGF1α concentrations. Deracoxib administration resulted in a minor abnormality in platelet aggregation. Anti-inflammatory doses of aspirin did not affect platelet function as measured by use of optical aggregometry and a platelet-function analyzer. Further evaluation of the effects of aspirin and cyclooxygenase-2–selective inhibitors on hemostasis should be performed.
Objective—To characterize a population of dogs from a tertiary care center with 2 or more endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—35 dogs with 2 or more endocrine disorders.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed, and the following was recorded: clinical signs, physical examination findings, and the results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, endocrine testing, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy.
Results—35 dogs with more than 1 endocrine disorder were identified. Seventy-seven percent (27/35) of the dogs were male, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first endocrinopathy was 7.9 years. Miniature Schnauzer was the most common breed. Twenty-eight of 35 (80%) dogs had 2 disorders; 7 (20%) had 3 disorders. The most common combinations of disorders included diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism in 57.1 % (20/35) of dogs; hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in 22.9% (8/35) of dogs; and diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in 28.6% (10/35) of dogs. A mean of 14.5 months elapsed between diagnosis of the first and second endocrine disorders, whereas there was a mean of 31.1 months between diagnosis of the first and third endocrine disorders.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders was uncommon in dogs. The most common combinations of endocrine disorders in this population of dogs were diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, followed by hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism.
To establish the components of a best-practice, baseline companion animal physical exam (CAPE).
25 small animal veterinary internists and 20 small animal primary care veterinarians, all teaching the CAPE at veterinary colleges in the US, Canada, and Australia.
Using the Delphi Method of Consensus, 3 rounds of online questionnaires were sent to participants. The first round included demographic questions, questions about teaching the physical exam, and an open-ended question allowing participants to record details of how they conduct a CAPE. In the second round, participants were asked to rate components of the CAPE, which were derived from round 1, as “always examine,” “only examine as needed,” or “undecided.” Following round 2, any component not reaching 90% consensus (set a priori) for the response “always examine” was put forth in round 3, with a summary of comments from the round 2 participants for each remaining component.
35 components of a baseline CAPE were identified from round 1. The 25 components that reached 90% consensus by the end of round 3 were checking the oral cavity, nose, eyes, ears, heart, pulse rate, pulse quality, pulse synchrony, lungs, respiratory rate, lymph nodes, abdomen, weight, body condition score, mucous membranes, capillary refill time, general assessment, masses, haircoat, skin, hydration, penis and testicles or vulva, neck, limbs, and, in cats only, thyroid glands.
The findings establish an expert panel’s consensus on 25 components of a baseline, best-practice CAPE that can be used to help inform veterinary curricula, future research, and the practice of veterinarians.
To describe veterinarians’ communication of the companion animal physical exam (CAPE) to veterinary clients and to identify factors associated with the number of physical exam components communicated by veterinarians to clients.
18 CAPE components were studied in relation to veterinarians’ use of 7 communication-related parameters. A mixed linear regression model was used to assess veterinarian, patient, and appointment factors associated with the number of components conveyed by a veterinarian.
Veterinarians conveyed 1,566 of 2,794 (56.1%) of the components that they examined to clients, as having been examined. Of those components that were examined and conveyed by veterinarians, the impact of the finding was communicated for 496 of 1,566 (31.7%) of the components. Visual aids and take-home literature were each used in relation to an examined component during 15 of the 376 interactions (4%). A significant association was found between number of CAPE components conveyed and gender of the veterinarian (females conveyed 1.31 more), as well as the type of appointment (2.57 more were conveyed in wellness appointments and 1.37 more in problem appointments, compared to rechecks).
Findings identify an opportunity for veterinarians to further emphasize components of the CAPE, which may in turn increase clients’ perceived value of the CAPE due to understanding the benefits for their pet. This may be accomplished with the Talking Physical Exam, in which veterinarians discuss CAPE components findings with clients in real time, and the relevance of the findings to the patient’s health.
Objective—To identify factors associated with development of struvite urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—508 dogs with a first-time diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis and 7,135 control dogs.
Procedures—Electronic medical records of all dogs evaluated at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States between October 2007 and December 2010 were reviewed to identify dogs that developed struvite urolithiasis and 2 groups of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis. Information extracted included diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, and date of diagnosis. Urinalysis results, urolith composition, and other disease conditions were recorded if applicable. Potential risk factors were assessed with univariable and multivariable regression analysis.
Results—Toy- or small-sized breeds had significantly greater odds of struvite urolithiasis, compared with medium- or large-sized breeds. Neutering significantly increased the odds of this outcome in females only; sexually intact females were more likely to develop struvite urolithiasis than were sexually intact males, but only up to 5 years of age. Urinary factors significantly associated with the outcome were basic (vs acidic) pH, presence of RBCs or WBCs, protein concentration > 30 mg/dL, and ketone concentration ≥ 5 mg/dL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation of demographic characteristics and urinalysis results may be useful in the early identification of struvite urolithiasis in dogs. Periodic urinalysis in dogs is recommended because of the potential health impact of a late diagnosis of urolithiasis.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of pneumoperitoneum created with warmed humidified CO2 (WHCO2) during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of postoperative pain in healthy mature dogs.
ANIMALS 6 mature purpose-bred dogs.
PROCEDURES In a randomized crossover study, each dog was anesthetized twice, and pneumoperitoneum was created with standard-temperature CO2 (STCO2; 22°C and 0% relative humidity) and WHCO2 (37°C and 98% relative humidity). Data were collected during each procedure, including core body temperature, cardiorespiratory and thromboelastography variables, and inflammatory biomarkers. Peritoneal biopsy specimens were collected and evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Dogs were assessed for signs of postoperative pain.
RESULTS Mean core body temperature was significantly lower (35.2°C; 95% confidence interval, 34.5° to 35.8°C) with WHCO2 than with STCO2 (35.9°C; 95% confidence interval, 35.3° to 36.6°C) across all time points. Cardiac index increased during the procedure for both treatments but was not significantly different between treatments. Thromboelastography variables did not differ significantly between treatments as indicated by the coagulation index. Subjective evaluation of peritoneal biopsy specimens revealed mesothelial cell loss with STCO2. There was no significant difference in circulating C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 concentrations. There was a significant increase in the number of postoperative pain scores > 0 for the WHCO2 treatment versus the STCO2 treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Analysis of these data suggested that effects on evaluated variables attributable to the use of WHCO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum in healthy mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy did not differ from effects for the use of STCO2.
To describe daily changes in serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, in dogs with septic peritonitis and to determine whether relationships exist among serum concentrations of HA and biomarkers of inflammation and patient fluid status.
8 client-owned dogs.
Serum samples that had been collected for a previous study and stored at −80°C were used. Blood samples were collected at admission and daily thereafter during hospitalization and were analyzed for concentrations of HA and interleukins 6, 8, and 10. Patient data including acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation score, type and amount of fluids administered daily, and daily CBC and lactate concentration results were recorded. To determine the significant predictors of HA concentration, a general linear mixed model for repeated measures was developed.
All dogs survived to discharge. Concentrations of HA ranged from 18 to 1,050 ng/mL (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 49 to 119 ng/mL) throughout hospitalization. Interleukin-6 concentration was a significant predictor of HA concentration as was total administered daily fluid volume when accounting for interleukin-6 concentration. When fluid volume was analyzed independent of inflammatory status, fluid volume was not a significant predictor. Concentrations of HA did not significantly change over time but tended to increase on day 2 or 3 of hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results supported the theory that inflammation is associated with endothelial glycocalyx degradation. Dogs recovering from septic peritonitis may become more susceptible to further endothelial glycocalyx damage as increasing fluid volumes are administered.