To determine anti-bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antibody titers for nasal secretions and serum from beef calves following administration of a modified-live (MLV) BRSV vaccine.
60 healthy newborn purebred beef calves.
Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: intranasal (IN)-SC (IN MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and SC MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), SC-IN (SC MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), or NO-IN (no vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age). Nasal secretion and serum samples were collected for determination of anti-BRSV antibodies within 24 hours of birth and 2 and 6 months of age.
Titers of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in serum were similar among groups at each sampling time. Within 24 hours of birth, nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers were negligible. At 2 months, mean nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers for calves in IN-SC, SC-IN, and NO-IN groups were 192.84, 224.49, and 114.71, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Concentrations of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in the nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in the serum of young beef calves following an MLV BRSV vaccine protocol that consisted of IN or SC vaccine within 24 hours of birth and vice versa at 2 months of age were not different from that following only an IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age. However, the lack of any differences may have been attributed to other factors. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:746–751)
Determine bovine leukemia virus (BLV) seroprevalence of adult female cattle in Eastern Kansas beef herds and the proviral load (PVL) of those cattle found to be ELISA positive.
Convenience sample of 2,845 cows from 44 beef herds.
BLV serostatus was determined using an ELISA antibody test (gp-51; IDEXX). BLV quantitative PCR (qPCR) status and PVL were determined utilizing a qPCR test (SS1 qPCR test; CentralStar Laboratories). The association of age, herd size, and body condition score (BCS) category on the probability of being BLV positive was evaluated with a multiple variable logistic regression analysis that used BLV status as a binary outcome, herd nested within ranch as a random effect, and BCS, herd size, and age category as fixed effects.
Forty-two of 44 herds had at least 1 BLV ELISA-positive cow (95.5% herd seroprevalence). Overall, 1,564 of the 2,845 cows were BLV ELISA positive (55.0% individual animal prevalence). No association between BLV ELISA status and herd size or BCS was identified. When evaluated by age, the model-adjusted probability of being BLV ELISA positive was lowest for heifers (1 year of age, first parity) and increased until 5 to 6 years of age. Of the 1,564 ELISA-positive animals, 838 were qPCR positive (53.6%). The model-adjusted probability of being qPCR positive was not associated with age, herd size, or BCS category.
This study indicated that BLV-seropositive status both as a herd classification and individual animal classification was very common in this population. Because the percentage of BLV-seropositive cows varied between herds and by age, this study provides evidence that it is essential for investigators to control for herd and age in any analysis of the association of BLV serostatus and health and production outcomes of interest. Some BLV ELSIA-seropositive cows were classified as BLV negative by qPCR, and risk factors may differ between classification status by ELISA and qPCR.