Case Description—8 adult dogs were evaluated for treatment of lethargy and vomiting after ingestion of xylitol, a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener in various products.
Clinical Findings—In addition to vomiting and lethargy, 5 of the dogs had widespread petechial, ecchymotic, or gastrointestinal tract hemorrhages. Common clinicopathologic findings included moderately to severely high serum activities of liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, hyperphosphatemia, prolonged clotting times, and thrombocytopenia. Necropsies were performed on 3 dogs and severe hepatic necrosis was found in 2. In the third dog, histologic examination revealed severe hepatocyte loss or atrophy with lobular collapse.
Treatment and Outcome—Treatments varied among dogs and included IV administration of fluids; plasma transfusions; and, if indicated, administration of dextrose. Three dogs were euthanatized, 2 dogs died, 2 dogs made a complete recovery, and 1 dog was recovering but was lost to follow-up.
Clinical Relevance—Although xylitol causes hypoglycemia in dogs, hepatic failure after ingestion has not previously been reported. Because an increasing number of consumer products contain xylitol, clinicians should be aware that ingestion of xylitol can have serious, life-threatening effects.
Objective—To determine clinical signs and outcomes of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) toxicosis in dogs; to assess effects of amount (ie, dose) and formulation (immediate or extended release) of ingested MPH on onset, duration, and severity of clinical signs; and to describe management of MPH intoxication.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—128 dogs with MPH toxicosis or exposure.
Procedures—Data from an Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) database from November 1, 2001, to November 30, 2008, were reviewed. Records of dogs were searched for APCC classifications of confirmed (n = 71) or suspected (39) MPH toxicosis; dogs (18) that ingested MPH but did not develop clinical signs of toxicosis were also included. Signalment, dose, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome were evaluated.
Results—Clinical signs of toxicosis were reported in 107 of 128 (84%) dogs that ingested MPH; these included hyperactivity in 42 (33%), tachycardia in 27 (21%), vomiting in 19 (15%), agitation in 16 (13%), and hyperthermia in 13 (10%). Doses ranged from 0.36 mg/kg (0.164 mg/lb) to 117.0 mg/kg (53.18 mg/lb). Severity of clinical signs was not strongly associated with dose. More severe and prolonged clinical signs were associated with ingestion of extended-release formulations of MPH; 3 dogs that consumed these formulations (doses, 10.2 mg/kg [4.64 mg/lb], 15.4 mg/kg [700 mg/lb], and 31.1 mg/kg [14.14 mg/lb]) died. Favorable outcomes were reported for most (31/34 [91%]) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of even small amounts of MPH can cause severe clinical signs in dogs. Monitoring and supportive care are recommended regardless of dose.
Objective—To determine epidemiologic characteristics,
clinical findings, and treatment outcome of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) toxicosis in dogs.
Animals—21 dogs with evidence of accidental 5-HTP
Procedure—Information was retrieved from the
National Animal Poison Control Center database.
Records of dogs ingesting 5-HTP between January
1989 and February 1999 were reviewed for information
on signalment, dose ingested, clinical signs
(onset, severity, duration), treatments administered,
Results—Clinical signs of toxicosis developed in 19 of
21 (90%) dogs. Neurologic signs included seizures (9
dogs), depression (6), tremors (5), hyperesthesia (5),
and ataxia (4). Gastrointestinal tract signs included
vomiting or diarrhea (12 dogs), signs of abdominal
pain (3), and hypersalivation (2). Other clinical signs
were hyperthermia (7 dogs) and transient blindness
(3). Three dogs died. No important clinical laboratory
or necropsy findings were reported. The doses of 5-HTP ingested ranged from 2.5 to 573 mg/kg (1.1 to
260 mg/lb) of body weight; the minimum toxic dose
reported in our study was 23.6 mg/kg (10.7 mg/lb),
and the minimum lethal dose was 128 mg/kg (58.1
mg/lb). Onset of signs ranged from 10 minutes to 4
hours after ingestion, and signs lasted up to 36 hours.
Of 17 dogs with clinical signs of toxicosis that
received treatment, 16 recovered; treatment consisted
of decontamination, seizure control, thermoregulation,
fluid therapy, and supportive care.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of
5-HTP in dogs can result in a potentially life-threatening
syndrome resembling serotonin syndrome in
humans, which requires prompt and aggressive care.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1937–1940)