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  • Author or Editor: Seamus Hoey x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine the size of the left and right kidneys by use of CT in dogs of various breeds without evidence of renal disease.

DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.

ANIMALS 21 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Renal length, diameter of the abdominal aorta, and length of the L2 vertebral body were measured independently on multiplanar reformatted non–contrast-enhanced CT images by 3 observers at 3 time points. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for renal length were determined. Associations of renal length with body weight, aorta diameter, and L2 vertebral body length were assessed by calculation of Pearson correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. Renal measurements were normalized to patient size by calculating renal length-to-aorta diameter and renal length-to-L2 vertebral body length ratios for comparison with previously published radiographic and ultrasonographic measurements.

RESULTS All kidneys were identified and measured on CT images by all observers. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement were excellent. Body weight, aorta diameter, and length of the L2 vertebral body were significantly correlated with renal length. Renal length-to-aorta diameter and renal length-to-L2 vertebral body length ratios (7.4 and 2.7, respectively) fell within the ranges of previously published values for these measurements.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE As CT becomes more widely available in general practice, knowledge of typical renal measurements and anatomic ratios obtained with this modality in dogs may be useful. A prospective study with a larger population of dogs, ideally including formulation of a reference range, is needed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



The objective of this study was to compare the skull morphology of the Straight Egyptian Arabian (SEAR) to the Thoroughbred (TB), using computed tomography (CT) in the context of surgical procedures commonly performed on the equine head.


Measurements relating to surgical considerations of the equine head were taken from 29 clinically normal adult horses (15 SEAR, 14 TB).


A clinical prospective study. Standing skull CTs were performed. Fourteen gross and 10 CT measurements were taken.


Several variables showed a significant difference between groups, in all cases greater in TB. Head length (P < .001) and facial crest length (P < .001) were significantly shorter in SEAR than TB. The head length was shorter relative to body height in SEAR (P < .001). The lateral length of a virtual maxillary bone flap was shorter in SEAR (P < .001). SEAR had smaller craniofacial angles than TB (P = .018).


SEAR skull morphology differs significantly from TB, making surgical approaches potentially more challenging. Compared with TB, the shorter facial crest in the SEAR group could contribute to poor surgical access to the maxillary sinus in SEAR due to shorter maxillary flap lengths. Significant differences in the craniofacial angles between SEAR and TB suggest similarities between SEAR and brachycephalic dog breeds, warranting further investigation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research