Objective—To establish a focused assessment with
sonography for trauma (FAST) protocol in dogs, determine
whether FAST can be performed by veterinary
clinicians without extensive ultrasonographic experience,
and assess the frequency of free fluid (as
determined via FAST) in the abdominal cavity of dogs
following motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).
Animals—100 client-owned dogs evaluated within 24
hours of an MVA.
Procedure—Dogs were placed in lateral recumbency
for the FAST examination. To detect fluid in the
abdomen, 2 ultrasonographic views (transverse and
longitudinal) were obtained at each of 4 sites (just
caudal to the xiphoid process, on the midline over the
urinary bladder, and at the left and right flank regions).
Results—In the 100 dogs evaluated via FAST, free
abdominal fluid was detected in 45 dogs. In 40 of
those 45 dogs, abdominocentesis was performed;
hemoperitoneum and uroperitoneum were diagnosed
in 38 and 2 dogs, respectively. Compared with dogs
that had no free abdominal fluid detected via FAST,
dogs that had free abdominal fluid detected via FAST
had significantly higher heart rates and serum lactate
concentrations and significantly lower PCVs and total
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that FAST is a simple and rapid technique that
can be performed on dogs in an emergency setting to
detect intra-abdominal free fluid and can be performed
by veterinary clinicians with minimal previous
ultrasonographic experience. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1198–1204)
Objective—To determine whether multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) could be identified in dogs with sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage, and whether the number of affected organ systems was significantly associated with mortality rate.
Design—Multicenter retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records for dogs treated surgically because of sepsis secondary to gastrointestinal tract leakage between 2003 and 2007 were reviewed. Sepsis was diagnosed on the basis of results of bacterial culture of peritoneal fluid, gross evidence of gastrointestinal tract leakage at surgery, or both. Renal dysfunction was defined as a ≥ 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration after surgery. Cardiovascular dysfunction was defined as hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment. Respiratory dysfunction was defined as a need for supplemental oxygen administration or mechanical ventilation. Hepatic dysfunction was defined as a serum bilirubin concentration > 0.5 mg/dL. Dysfunction of coagulation was defined as prolonged prothrombin time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, or platelet count ≤ 100,000/μL.
Results—89 (78%) dogs had dysfunction of 1 or more organ systems, and 57 (50%) dogs had MODS. Mortality rate increased as the number of dysfunctional organ systems increased. Mortality rate was 70% (40/57) for dogs with MODS and 25% (14/57) for dogs without.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that MODS, defined as dysfunction of at least 2 organ systems, can be identified in dogs with sepsis and that organ system dysfunction increased the odds of death.