Objective—To compare the perioperative analgesic effect between methadone and butorphanol in cats.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—22 healthy female domestic cats.
Procedures—Cats admitted for ovariohysterectomy were allocated to a butorphanol group (n = 10) or methadone group (12) and premedicated with butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], SC) or methadone (0.6 mg/kg [0.27 mg/lb], SC), respectively, in combination with acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg [0.01 mg/lb], SC). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A multidimensional composite scale was used to conduct pain assessments prior to premedication and 5, 20, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 360 minutes after extubation or until rescue analgesia was given. Groups were compared to evaluate isoflurane requirement, propofol requirement, pain scores, and requirement for rescue analgesia.
Results—Propofol and isoflurane requirements and preoperative pain scores were not different between groups. During recovery, dysphoria prevented pain evaluation at 5 minutes. Pain scores at 20 minutes were significantly lower in the methadone group, and 6 of 10 cats in the butorphanol group received rescue analgesia, making subsequent pain score comparisons inapplicable. After 6 hours, only 3 of 12 cats in the methadone group had received rescue analgesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the present study, methadone appeared to be a better postoperative analgesic than butorphanol and provided effective analgesia for 6 hours following ovariohysterectomy in most cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;243:844–850)
Animals—39 healthy female cats (10 in phase 1 and 29 in phase 2).
Procedures—Cats admitted for ovariohysterectomy received buprenorphine (4 in phase 1; 14 in phase 2) or butorphanol (6 in phase 1; 15 in phase 2). In phase 1, cats were premedicated with buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IM) or butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], IM), in combination with medetomidine. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. After extubation, medetomidine was antagonized with atipamezole. A validated multidimensional composite scale was used to assess signs of pain after surgery starting 20 minutes after extubation and continuing for up to 360 minutes, and pain score comparisons were made between the 2 groups. Phase 2 proceeded similar to phase 1 with the following addition: during wound closure, cats from the butorphanol and buprenorphine groups received butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg, IM) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM), respectively.
Results—Phase 1 of the study was stopped after 10 cats were ovariohysterectomized because 9 of 10 cats required rescue analgesia at the first evaluation. In phase 2, at the first pain evaluation, pain scores from the buprenorphine group were lower, and all cats from the butorphanol group required rescue analgesia. None of the cats from the buprenorphine group required rescue analgesia at any time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM) given before surgery and during wound closure provided adequate analgesia for 6 hours following ovariohysterectomy in cats, whereas butorphanol did not.
Objective—To determine whether prolonged administration of clenbuterol results in tachyphylaxis, specifically regarding its bronchoprotective properties and effect on sweating in horses.
Animals—8 Thoroughbreds with inflammatory airway disease.
Procedures—In a crossover design, horses received clenbuterol (0.8 μg/kg, PO, q 12 h) or placebo for 21 days, with a washout period of ≥ 30 days between the 2 treatments. Airway reactivity was evaluated by use of flowmetric plethysmography and histamine broncho-provocation before (day 0; baseline) and every 7 days after the start of treatment. Sweat function was evaluated via response to epinephrine administered ID before and every 10 days after the start of treatment.
Results—The concentration of histamine required to increase total airway obstruction by 35% (PC35) was significantly reduced during treatment with clenbuterol (mean change, 11.5 mg/mL), compared with during administration of the placebo (mean change, −1.56 mg/mL), with a peak effect at 14 days. Tachyphylaxis was evident by day 21, with 7 of 8 horses having a PC35 below the baseline value (mean change, −0.48 mg/mL), which returned to baseline values during the washout period. No effect of clenbuterol was seen in sweat response to epinephrine administration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clenbuterol initially reduced airway sensitivity to inhaled histamine, but tachyphylaxis that resulted in increased airway reactivity was evident by day 21. Although no effects on sweating were detected, the technique may not have been sensitive enough to identify subtle changes. Prolonged administration of clenbuterol likely results in a clinically important reduction in its bronchodilatory effects.