Objective—To perform morphometric analysis of the caudal cranial fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs), to assess the relationship between caudal fossa dimensions and the frequency of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of occipital abnormalities in CKCSs (with and without syringomyelia), and to compare caudal cranial fossa measurements in CKCSs with measurements of 2 groups of mesaticephalic dogs.
Animals—70 CKCSs and 80 mesaticephalic (control) dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were placed into 4 groups as follows: Labrador Retrievers (n = 40), spaniel-type dogs (40; English Springer Spaniels and Cocker Spaniels), CKCSs with syringomyelia (55), and CKCSs without syringomyelia (15). Multiple morphometric measurements (linear, angular, and area) were obtained from cranial midsagittalT2-weighted magnetic resonance images including the brain and cervical portion of the spinal cord. Several specific MRI findings were also recorded for CKCSs that appeared to affect the occipital bone and cervicomedullary junction.
Results—No significant difference was identified among breeds in control groups and between sexes in any of the groups for all morphometric measurements. Significant differences were identified in CKCSs, compared with mesaticephalic dogs, in the area of the caudal cranial fossa and for several linear measurements that reflected the length of the ventral aspect of the occipital bone. These differences were greater in CKCSs with syringomyelia. All CKCSs had abnormalities in occipital bone shape.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CKCSs had a shallower caudal cranial fossa and abnormalities of the occipital bone, compared with those of mesaticephalic dogs. These changes were more severe in CKCSs with syringomyelia.
Objective—To assess associations of severity of neurologic signs (neurologic score), involvement of an intumescence, and findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with interval to recovery and outcome in dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—42 dogs with presumptive acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.
Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance (MR) images of dogs evaluated from 2000 through 2007 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were acute onset of nonprogressive myelopathy following trauma or strenuous exercise, MRI of the spine performed within 7 days after onset, MRI findings consistent with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions, and complete medical records and follow-up.
Results—Clinical neuroanatomic localization of lesions was to the C1-C5 (n = 6), C6-T2 (6), T3-L3 (28), and L4-S3 (2) spinal cord segments. Median neurologic score was 3.5. Median duration of follow-up was 804 days (range, 3 to 2,134 days) after onset of neurologic signs. Outcome was successful in 28 (67%) dogs and unsuccessful in 14 (33%) dogs. Severity of neurologic signs, extent of the intramedullary hyperintensity on sagittal and transverse T2-weighted MR images, and detection of intramedullary hypointensity on GRE images were all associated with outcome on univariate analysis. Results of multivariate analysis suggested that maximal cross-sectional area of the intramedullary hyperintensity on transverse T2-weighted MR images was the best predictor of outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance—Clinical and MRI findings can help predict outcome in dogs with acute noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusions.
Objective—To determine whether clinical signs or magnetic resonance imaging findings were associated with outcome in dogs with presumptive ischemic myelopathy.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance images were reviewed. A neurologic score from 1 (normal) to 5 (most severe degree of dysfunction) was assigned on the basis of neurologic signs at the time of initial examination. Follow-up information was obtained from the medical records and by means of a telephone questionnaire completed by owners and referring veterinarians.
Results—Median neurologic score at the time of initial examination was 3 (range, 2 to 5). Median follow-up time was 584 days (range, 4 to 2,090 days). Neurologic score at the time of initial examination and extent of the lesion seen on magnetic resonance images (quantified as the lesion length-to-vertebral length ratio and as the percentage cross-sectional area of the lesion) were significantly associated with outcome. Sensitivity of using a lesion length-to-vertebral length ratio > 2.0 or a percentage cross-sectional area of the lesion ≥ 67% to predict an unsuccessful outcome was 100%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that severity of neurologic signs at the time of initial examination and extent of the lesions seen on magnetic resonance images were associated with outcome in dogs with ischemic myelopathy.
Objective—To determine results of magnetic resonance
(MR) imaging in dogs with vestibular disorders
(VD) and correlate results of MR imaging with clinical
Procedure—Information on signalment, clinical signs,
and presumptive lesion location was obtained from
the medical records, and MR images were reviewed.
Results—27 dogs had peripheral VD, 37 had central VD,
and 21 had paradoxical VD. Of the 27 dogs with peripheral
VD, 11 (41%) had MR imaging abnormalities involving
the ipsilateral tympanic bulla compatible with otitis
media (6 also had abnormalities involving the petrous
portion of the ipsilateral temporal bone compatible with
otitis interna), 7 (26%) had MR imaging abnormalities
compatible with middle ear neoplasia, 2 (7%) had an ipsilateral
cerebellopontine angle lesion, and 7 (26%) did not
have MR imaging abnormalities. All dogs with central
and paradoxical VD had abnormalities evident on MR
images. Of the 37 dogs with central VD, 13 (35%) had an
extra-axial lesion, 6 (16%) had an intra-axial lesion, and
18 (49%) had multiple intra-axial lesions. In 23 (62%)
dogs with central VD, lesions on MR images corresponded
with location suspected on the basis of clinical
signs. Of the 21 dogs with paradoxical VD, 12 (57%) had
an extra-axial lesion, 5 (24%) had an intra-axial lesion,
and 4 (19%) had multiple intra-axial lesions. Location of
lesions on MR images agreed with location suspected
on the basis of clinical signs in 19 (90%) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that MR imaging may be helpful in the diagnosis
and treatment of VD in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine interobserver and intraobserver agreement for results of low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dogs with and without disk-associated wobbler syndrome (DAWS).
Animals—21 dogs with and 23 dogs without clinical signs of DAWS.
Procedures—For each dog, MRI of the cervical vertebral column was performed. The MRI studies were presented in a randomized sequence to 4 board-certified radiologists blinded to clinical status. Observers assessed degree of disk degeneration, disk-associated and dorsal compression, alterations in intraspinal signal intensity (ISI), vertebral body abnormalities, and new bone formation and categorized each study as originating from a clinically affected or clinically normal dog. Interobserver agreement was calculated for 44 initial measurements for each observer. Intraobserver agreement was calculated for 11 replicate measurements for each observer.
Results—There was good interobserver agreement for ratings of disk degeneration and vertebral body abnormalities and moderate interobserver agreement for ratings of disk-associated compression, dorsal compression, alterations in ISI, new bone formation, and suspected clinical status. There was very good intraobserver agreement for ratings of disk degeneration, disk-associated compression, alterations in ISI, vertebral body abnormalities, and suspected clinical status. There was good intraobserver agreement for ratings of dorsal compression and new bone formation. Two of 21 clinically affected dogs were erroneously categorized as clinically normal, and 4 of 23 clinically normal dogs were erroneously categorized as clinically affected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that variability exists among observers with regard to results of MRI in dogs with DAWS and that MRI could lead to false-positive and false-negative assessments.
Objective—To evaluate interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of brain MRI in dogs.
Procedures—5 board-certified veterinary radiologists with variable MRI experience interpreted transverse T2-weighted (T2w), T2w fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and T1-weighted-FLAIR; transverse, sagittal, and dorsal T2w; and T1-weighted-FLAIR postcontrast brain sequences (1.5 T). Several imaging parameters were scored, including the following: lesion (present or absent), lesion characteristics (axial localization, mass effect, edema, hemorrhage, and cavitation), contrast enhancement characteristics, and most likely diagnosis (normal, neoplastic, inflammatory, vascular, metabolic or toxic, or other). Magnetic resonance imaging diagnoses were determined initially without patient information and then repeated, providing history and signalment. For all cases and readers, MRI diagnoses were compared with final diagnoses established with results from histologic examination (when available) or with other pertinent clinical data (CSF analysis, clinical response to treatment, or MRI follow-up). Magnetic resonance scores were compared between examiners with κ statistics.
Results—Reading agreement was substantial to almost perfect (0.64 < κ < 0.86) when identifying a brain lesion on MRI; fair to moderate (0.14 < κ < 0.60) when interpreting hemorrhage, edema, and pattern of contrast enhancement; fair to substantial (0.22 < κ < 0.74) for dural tail sign and categorization of margins of enhancement; and moderate to substantial (0.40 < κ < 0.78) for axial localization, presence of mass effect, cavitation, intensity, and distribution of enhancement. Interobserver agreement was moderate to substantial for categories of diagnosis (0.56 < κ < 0.69), and agreement with the final diagnosis was substantial regardless of whether patient information was (0.65 < κ < 0.76) or was not (0.65 < κ < 0.68) provided.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study found that whereas some MRI features such as edema and hemorrhage were interpreted less consistently, radiologists were reasonably constant and accurate when providing diagnoses.