Objective—To measure rabies preexposure vaccination
rate and identify factors potentially associated
with lack of vaccination among veterinarians and atrisk
Study Population—At-risk veterinary medical association
(VMA) members, their staff members, and animal
shelter and wildlife rehabilitation center personnel
located in a California county.
Procedure—A questionnaire was mailed to VMA
members and managers of animal shelters and
wildlife rehabilitation centers. Respondents were
requested to provide data on vaccination history and
potential factors associated with vaccination status
for themselves and their at-risk staff members.
Vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals were compared
by use of univariate and logistic regression
analyses to identify factors associated with vaccination
Results—Fifty-eight percent (79/137) of persons who
received questionnaires responded; 74 were eligible
for the study. Respondents provided data for 47.6%
(219/460) of their staff members. The vaccination rate
was greater among respondents (85.1%) than among
their staff members (17.5%). Among staff members,
age and duration of employment were significantly
associated with vaccination status.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A large proportion
of at-risk staff members working in veterinary
clinics, animal shelters, and wildlife rehabilitation centers
in the study area did not receive rabies preexposure
vaccination per the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention's published recommendations of the
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
(ACIP). The cost of the preexposure vaccine series
may be a barrier, particularly for young employees
who are commonly short-term, part-time, or volunteer
workers. Efforts are needed to increase awareness
of the ACIP recommendations and to increase
access to vaccination through agencies such as public
health clinics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1707–1710)
OBJECTIVE To examine potential associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the risk of development of chronic azotemic kidney disease (CKD) among cats and determine whether the risk of CKD increases with severity of PD.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 169, 242 cats.
PROCEDURES Cats were evaluated ≥ 3 times at any of 829 hospitals from January 1, 2002, through June 30, 2013. Cats with an initial diagnosis of PD of any stage (n = 56,414) were frequency matched with cats that had no history or evidence of PD (112,828) by age and year of study entry. Data on signalment, PD, and other conditions potentially related to CKD were extracted from electronic medical records. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate the association of PD with CKD after controlling for covariates.
RESULTS PD was associated with increased risk of CKD; risk was highest for cats with stage 3 or 4 PD. Risk of CKD increased with age. Purebred cats had greater risk of CKD than mixed-breed cats. General anesthesia within the year before study exit and diagnosis of cystitis at any point prior to study exit (including prior to study entry) were each associated with increased CKD risk. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or hepatic lipidosis at any point prior to study exit was associated with decreased CKD risk.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings supported the benefit of maintaining good oral health and can be useful to veterinarians for educating owners on the importance of preventing PD in cats.