Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: Robert W. Norrdin x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


Objective—To determine microradiographic appearance, bone histomorphometry, and mineral density of the long bones of the metacarpophalangeal joint in horses after immobilization followed by remobilization.

Animals—5 healthy horses.

Procedure—One forelimb of each horse was immobilized in a fiberglass cast for 7 weeks, followed by 8 weeks of increasing exercise. Calcein and oxytetracycline were administered IV during the immobilization and exercise phases, respectively, for bone labeling and analysis after euthanasia. Sagittal sections of metacarpal bones and proximal phalanges were examined via radiography, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, histomorphometry, and bone label analysis.

Results—Radiography revealed loss of bone mineral opacity in the subarticular regions of the immobilized metacarpal bones and phalanges and subchondral lesions in metacarpal bones in 2 horses. In phalanges, a significant decrease in subarticular volumetric bone mineral density was detected. There was significantly less bone volume and calcein-labeled bone surface and more vascular volume and oxytetracycline-labeled bone surface in immobilized phalanges, compared with contralateral phalanges.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Eight weeks of exercise after single-limb immobilization is insufficient for recovery of volumetric bone mineral density. During immobilization and remobilization, the subchondral and trabecular bone appear to be actively remodeling. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:276–281)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine effects of treadmill exercise on subchondral bone of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints of 2-year-old horses.

Animals—12 healthy 2-year-old horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to the control (n = 6) or exercised (6) groups. Horses in the exercised group ran on a high-speed treadmill 5 d/wk for 6 months. Horses in the control group were hand walked for the same amount of time. Results of clinical, radiographic, nuclear scintigraphic, and computed tomographic examinations, and serum and synovial concentrations of biochemical markers of bone metabolism were compared between groups.

Results—Exercised horses were significantly lamer at the end of the study than control horses. Radionuclide uptake in the metacarpal condyles, but not in the carpal joints, was greater in exercised horses, compared with control horses. Exercised horses also had a higher subchondral bone density in the metacarpal condyles than control horses, but such differences were not detected in the carpal bones.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—None of the diagnostic techniques evaluated was sufficiently sensitive to detect all osteochondral damage. Computed tomography and computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry were superior to conventional radiography for detecting small osteochondral fragments. Nuclear scintigraphy was a sensitive indicator of subchondral bone change but lacked specificity for describing lesions and discerning normal bone remodeling from damage. Newer techniques such as computed tomography may help clinicians better diagnose early and subtle joint lesions in horses prior to development of gross joint damage. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1252–1258)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research