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  • Author or Editor: Robert Pollet x
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Twenty-nine pruritic, atopic dogs were entered into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy of an investigational antiallergenic compound, AHR-13268. Fourteen dogs were evaluated by a veterinary dermatologist (at intervals) and the owner (daily). Fifteen dogs were evaluated only by the owner. The mean (± se) owner scores for pruritus, erythema, and lesions with placebo treatment (higher score = worse signs) were 3.24 (± 0.12), 2.73 (± 0.12), and 2.61 (± 0.09), respectively. With drug treatment, the corresponding scores were 2.89 (± 0.12), 2.50 (± 0.12), and 2.25 (± 0.09). Scores for pruritus and lesions (but not erythema) were significantly better with drug treatment than with placebo treatment. Investigator scores showed similar trends, but the differences were not great enough to be statistically significant. Overall, 11/29 (38%) owners reported their dogs had moderate or better improvement from drug capsules, and 4/29 dogs (14%) improved on placebo capsules A variety of adverse effects were reported following both drug (9/29 dogs) and placebo (8/29 dogs) capsule administration, but were mild and well tolerated. Results of this study indicate that AHR-13268 has potential for empiric treatment of allergic inhalant dermatitis in some dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the effects of perzinfotel, butorphanol, and their combination on the minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in cats.

Animals—7 healthy sexually intact cats (4 males and 3 females), aged 12 to 17 months and weighing 2.8 to 4.6 kg.

Procedures—In a crossover design, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, perzinfotel (2.5 to 15 mg/kg; IV, IM, and SC), butorphanol tartrate (0.2 mg/kg, IM), or a combination of 5 mg of perzinfotel/kg and 2 mg of butorphanol tartrate/kg (both IM) was administered to 6 cats before 7 separate episodes of anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, bispectral index (BIS), and inspiration and expiration concentrations of isoflurane were continuously monitored. The isoflurane MAC was determined twice during anesthesia.

Results—IV, IM, and SC administration of perzinfotel at 2.5 to 15 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in mean isoflurane MAC by 43.3% to 68.0%. The BIS significantly increased after perzinfotel administration via the same routes at 2.5 to 15 mg/kg and after perzinfotelbutorphanol administration IM. Blood pressure was significantly higher after perzinfotel was administered at 5 mg/kg, IM; 10 mg/kg, IV; and 10 mg/kg, SC than after saline solution administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Perzinfotel administration decreased the isoflurane MAC and increased several BIS and blood pressure values in anesthetized cats. Administration of perzinfotel prior to isoflurane anesthesia may improve anesthetic safety by reducing inhalant anesthetic requirements and improving cardiovascular function during anesthesia. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1270–1276)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The relative toxicity of phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and ketoprofen was studied in healthy adult horses. Sixteen horses were randomly assigned to receive 10 ml of physiologic saline solution, or ketoprofen (2.2 mg/kg of body weight), flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg), or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg) IV, every 8 hours, for 12 days. Results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and fecal occult blood tests were monitored. On day 13, all horses were euthanatized and complete necropsy examinations were performed.

Mean CBC values remained within normal limits for all groups. Phenylbutazone-treated horses had a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations. Mean values of all other serum biochemical assays were not different from those of the saline-treated group. Results of all fecal occult blood tests were negative. At necropsy, the glandular portion of the stomach was the area of the gastrointestinal tract most severely affected by phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and ketoprofen. In the phenylbutazone-treated group, but not in the other groups, edema of the small intestine and erosions and ulcers of the large colon were observed. None of the horses treated with saline solution had lesions in the glandular portion of the stomach or in the intestine. Four horses (1/5 and 3/3 in the flunixin- and phenylbutazone-treated groups, respectively) developed renal crest necrosis. Horses in the saline- and ketoprofen-treated groups did not develop renal lesions. Under the conditions of this study and with total daily doses that exceeded the manufacturers' recommended doses, the toxic potential of the 3 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was greatest for phenylbutazone, less for flunixin meglumine, and least for ketoprofen in clinically normal adult horses.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the anesthetic-sparing effects of perzinfotel when administered as a preanesthetic via IV, IM, or SC routes or IM in combination with butorphanol.

Animals—6 healthy sexually intact Beagles (4 males and 2 females; age, 18.5 to 31 months; body weight, 9.8 to 12.4 kg).

Procedures—After administration of a placebo, perzinfotel (10 to 30 mg/kg), or a perzinfotel-butorphanol combination, anesthesia was induced in dogs with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. The following variables were continuously monitored: bispectral index; heart rate; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures; end-tidal concentration of isoflurane; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2; oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry; rectal temperature; and inspiration and expiration concentrations of isoflurane. A noxious stimulation protocol was used, and the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined twice during anesthesia.

Results—IV, IM, and SC administration of perzinfotel alone decreased the mean isoflurane MAC values by 32% to 44% and significantly increased bispectral index values. A dose of 30 mg of perzinfotel/kg IM resulted in significant increases in heart rate and diastolic arterial blood pressure. The greatest MAC reduction (59%) was obtained with a combination of 20 mg of perzinfotel/kg IM and 0.2 mg of butorphanol/kg IM, whereas administration of butorphanol alone yielded a 15% reduction in the isoflurane MAC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SC, IM, or IV administration of perzinfotel prior to induction of isoflurane anesthesia improved anesthetic safety by reducing inhalant anesthetic requirements in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine pharmacokinetics of IV, IM, and oral administration of cefepime in horses and to compare pharmacokinetics of IM administration of cefepime with those of ceftiofur sodium.


6 clinically normal adult horses.


Horses received 3 doses of cefepime (11 mg/kg of body weight, PO; 2.2 mg/kg, IV; and 2.2 mg/kg, IM) and 1 dose of ceftiofur (2.2 mg/kg, IM). Two horses also received l-arginine, PO and IV, at doses identical to those contained in the cefepime dihydrochloride-l-arginine preparations previously administered. Blood samples were collected for 24 hours after administration of cefepime or ceftiofur and were assayed for cefepime and ceftiofur concentrations.


Pharmacokinetic analysis of disposition data indicated that IV administration data were best described by a 2-compartment open model, whereas IM administration data were best described by a 1-compartment absorption model. Median elimination half-life and volume of distribution after IV administration of cefepime were 125.7 minutes and 225 ml/kg, respectively. After IM administration of cefepime, mean maximal plasma concentration of (8.13 μg/ml) was reached at a mean time of 80 minutes. Absorption of cefepime after IM administration was complete, with a median bioavailability of 1.11. Intramuscular administration of ceftiofur resulted in similar mean maximal plasma concentration (7.98 μg/ml) and mean time to this concentration (82 minutes). Cefepime was not detected in samples collected after oral administration. Adverse effects consisting principally of gastrointestinal disturbances were observed after oral and IM administration of cefepime and after 1 IM administration of ceftiofur.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Cefepime, administered IV or IM at a dosage of 2.2 mg/kg, every 8 hours is likely to provide effective antibacterial therapy for cefepime-sensitive organisms in horses. Further studies are needed to evaluate adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:458–463)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To examine the susceptibility of cultured primary equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBECs) to a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus relative to human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs).


Primary EBEC cultures established from healthy adult horses and commercially sourced human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were used as a positive control.


Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression by EBECs was demonstrated using immunofluorescence, western immunoblot, and flow cytometry. EBECs were transduced with a lentivirus pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that binds to ACE2 and expresses the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) as a reporter. Cells were transduced with the pseudovirus at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 for 6 hours, washed, and maintained in media for 96 hours. After 96 hours, eGFP expression in EBECs was assessed by fluorescence microscopy of cell cultures and quantitative PCR.


ACE2 expression in EBECs detected by immunofluorescence, western immunoblotting, and flow cytometry was lower in EBECs than in HBECs. After 96 hours, eGFP expression in EBECs was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, and mean ΔCt values from quantitative PCR were significantly (P < .0001) higher in EBECs (8.78) than HBECs (3.24) indicating lower infectivity in EBECs.


Equine respiratory tract cells were susceptible to cell entry with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Lower replication efficiency in EBECs suggests that horses are unlikely to be an important zoonotic host of SARS-CoV-2, but viral mutations could render some strains more infective to horses. Serological and virological monitoring of horses in contact with persons shedding SARS-CoV-2 is warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research