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Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors associated with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) among dairy cattle in the United States and identify characteristics of HBS in individual cows.

Design—Cross-sectional, population-based survey.

Sample Population—A stratified random sample of 1,013 dairy operations with ≥ 30 cows located in 21 states.

Procedure—Information on management and animal health-related topics was collected with a questionnaire.

Results—HBS was estimated to have been observed on 9.1% of operations during the preceding 5 years and on 5.1% of operations during the preceding 12 months. Factors found in multivariable analysis to be associated with the occurrence of HBS during the preceding 12 months were large herd size, administration of bovine somatotropin, and routine use of milk urea nitrogen concentration to determine ration composition. Use of pasture as part of the lactating cow ration during the growing season was associated with decreased odds of HBS in operations with rolling herd average milk production ≤ 20,000 lb, whereas in operations with higher milk production, use of pasture was not associated with occurrence of HBS. For individual cows with signs consistent with HBS, the third lactation was the median of the parity distribution and the median time between parturition and the onset of clinical signs was 104 days.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that management practices implemented to achieve high milk production may increase the risk of developing HBS in dairy cattle. Increased consumption of a high-energy diet seems to be the most plausible common pathway for all of the risk factors that have been described. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1700–1706)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations measured with a dual-purpose point-of-care (POC) meter designed for use in humans and a laboratory biochemical analyzer (LBA) to determine whether the POC meter would be reliable for on-farm measurement of blood glucose and BHB concentrations in sheep in various environmental conditions and nutritional states.

Animals—36 pregnant mixed-breed ewes involved in a maternal feed restriction study.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from each sheep at multiple points throughout gestation and lactation to allow for tracking of gradually increasing metabolic hardship. Whole blood glucose and BHB concentrations were measured with the POC meter and compared with serum results obtained with an LBA.

Results—464 samples were collected. Whole blood BHB concentrations measured with the POC meter compared well with LBA results, and error grid analysis showed the POC values were acceptable. Whole blood glucose concentrations measured with the POC meter had more variation, compared with LBA values, over the glucose ranges evaluated. Results of error grid analysis of POC-measured glucose concentrations were not acceptable, indicating errors likely to result in needless treatment with glucose or other supplemental energy sources in normoglycemic sheep.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The POC meter was user-friendly and performed well across a wide range of conditions. The meter was adequate for detection of pregnancy toxemia in sheep via whole blood BHB concentration. Results should be interpreted with caution when the POC meter is used to measure blood glucose concentrations.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—5 Vietnamese potbellied pigs were evaluated for abdominal distress that had not responded to medical treatment (4 pigs) or a draining tract of the cranial abdomen of unknown duration (1 pig).

Clinical Findings—Clinical signs in the pigs included anorexia, vomiting, and constipation. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in all pigs. Radiography revealed distended loops of small intestine in 2 pigs.

Treatment and Outcome—3 pigs were treated successfully with wide-margin excision of the abdominal masses, and 2 were euthanized. Primary tumors were diagnosed at necropsy or through histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during surgery. Types of tumor included cholangiocellular carcinoma, transmural gastric carcinoma, small intestinal adenocarcinoma, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and carcinoma. The tumors involved the stomach, small intestine, spiral colon, liver, and gall bladder. All 3 surgically treated pigs survived at least 9 months after surgery.

Clinical Relevance—Although rare, neoplasia of the alimentary system should be considered among the differential diagnoses for potbellied pigs with signs of abdominal distress. Wide-margin excision of the neoplastic tissue may result in a good outcome in affected pigs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of systemic disease signs for classifying severity of acute coliform mastitis in dairy cows.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—144 dairy cows.

Procedure—Cows were examined at the time of initial identification of disease (time 0) and classified as having mild, moderate, or severe disease on the basis of rectal temperature, hydration status, rumen contraction rate, and attitude. A CBC and serum biochemical analyses were performed, and milk samples were submitted for bacterial culture at time 0 and 48 hours later.

Results—69 cows were classified as having mild disease, 44 as having moderate disease, and 31 as having severe disease. Median WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly lower in cows with moderate or severe disease at time 0 than in cows with mild disease. Band neutrophil count was significantly higher at 48 hours and serum calcium concentration was significantly lower at time 0 and at 48 hours in cows with severe or moderate disease, compared with cows with mild disease. Twenty-eight, 51, and 77% of cows with mild, moderate, and severe disease, respectively, had > 100,000 colony-forming units/ml of milk at time 0. The odds that a cow with severe disease would die or be culled were 3.6 times the odds for a cow with moderate disease and 11.2 times the odds for a cow with mild disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a classification scheme based on readily observable systemic disease signs can be used to classify disease severity in cows with acute coliform mastitis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:567–572)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for percutaneous collection of fetal fluid from cattle in the late stages of gestation and determine whether bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can be isolated from such fluids.

Design—Case series.

Animals—169 pregnant beef cattle.

Procedure—Animals were restrained in a squeeze chute, and hair was clipped from a region of the right flank. Pregnancy was confirmed, and fetal fluids were identified by means of abdominal ultrasonography. Fetal fluid was collected with a spinal needle. Virus isolation was performed on fetal fluids, WBC lysates from 160 live calves, and tissues from 12 calves that died or were aborted. Blood samples collected from adult cattle were assayed with an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay.

Results—Fourteen animals aborted or delivered premature calves within 3 weeks after fetal fluid collection; however, it could not be determined whether this was a complication of the procedure or attributable to other factors. Results of BVDV isolation from fetal fluid samples were negative for 168 animals. However, a noncytopathic BVDV was isolated from fetal fluid obtained from a 2-year-old heifer; results of the immunoperoxidase assay of serum from this heifer were also positive, and a noncytopathic BVDV was isolated from tissue specimens from a stillborn calf produced by this heifer.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that fetal fluids can be collected percutaneously from cattle in the late stages of gestation and that virus isolation performed on fetal fluids can be used to identify fetuses infected with BVDV in utero. However, safety of the procedure could not be evaluated. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1348–1352).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association