Objective—–To compare transfixation and standard
full-limb casts for prevention of in vitro displacement
of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy site
Sample Population—6 forelimbs from 6 horses
euthanatized for reasons not related to the musculoskeletal
Procedure—A 30° osteotomy was performed in the
mid-diaphysis of the third metacarpal bone. Two 4.5-mm cortical bone screws were placed across the
osteotomy site to maintain alignment during casting.
Two 6.35-mm Steinmann pins were placed from a lateral-to-medial direction in the distal aspect of the
radius. A full-limb cast that incorporated the pins was
applied. An extensometer was positioned in the
osteotomy site through a window placed in the dorsal
aspect of the cast, and after removal of the screws,
displacement was recorded while the limb was axially
loaded to 5,340 N (1,200 lb). Pins were removed,
and the standard full-limb cast was tested in a similar
Results—The transfixation cast significantly reduced
displacement across the osteotomy site at 445 N (100
lb), 1,112 N (250 lb), 2,224 N (500 lb), and 4,448 N
(1,000 lb), compared with the standard cast.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A full-limb
transfixation cast provides significantly greater resistance
than a standard full-limb cast against axial collapse
of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy
site when the bone is placed under axial compression.
Placement of full-limb transfixation casts should
be considered for the management of unstable fractures
of the third metacarpal bone in horses. (Am J
Vet Res 2000;61:1633–1635)
Objective—To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Procedures—Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables.
Results—In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.
To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities.
10 client-owned male dogs.
Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared.
Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.
3 dogs with retroperitoneal masses (2 renal and 1 located near the diaphragm) were treated by percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA).
Dogs between 11 and 13 years of age weighing between 13.7 and 43.8 kg had either a renal mass (n = 2) or a mass located in the caudodorsal aspect of the retroperitoneal space near the right side of the diaphragm (1). Cytology revealed that one of the renal masses and the mass located near the diaphragm were malignant neoplasias. Findings on cytologic evaluation of a sample of the other renal mass was nondiagnostic. Maximum mass diameters ranged between 1.4 and 2.5 cm.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
All dogs were treated by percutaneous MWA. Probes were directed into tumors by use of ultrasound and CT guidance, and microwave energy was applied to each mass. Findings on imaging of each mass following MWA was consistent with successful treatment. No intraprocedural or major postprocedural complications occurred, and all dogs were discharged from the hospital within 3 days of treatment. Two dogs died at 3 and 21 months after MWA with no known local recurrence; 1 dog was still alive 64 months after treatment.
Although the indications for MWA in the treatment of neoplasia in companion animals are limited, the outcomes of dogs in the present report provided preliminary evidence that percutaneous MWA can be safely used to effectively treat retroperitoneal neoplasia. This procedure was successfully performed with image guidance in all 3 dogs.
To describe the procedure of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in dogs with prostatic carcinoma and to evaluate the short-term outcome for treated dogs.
20 client-owned dogs with prostatic carcinomas between May 2014 and July 2017.
In this prospective cohort study, dogs with carcinoma of the prostate underwent PAE with fluoroscopic guidance. Before and after PAE, dogs underwent CT and ultrasonographic examinations of the prostate, and each owner completed a questionnaire about the dog's clinical signs. Results for before versus after PAE were compared.
Prostatic artery embolization was successfully performed in all 20 dogs. Tenesmus, stranguria, and lethargy were significantly less common 30 days after PAE (n = 2, 1, and 0 dogs, respectively), compared with before PAE (9, 10, and 6 dogs, respectively). Median prostatic volume was significantly less 30 days after PAE (14.8 cm3; range, 0.4 to 48.1 cm3; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 6.7 to 19.5 cm3), compared with before PAE (21.7 cm3; range, 2.9 to 77.7 cm3; interquartile range, 11.0 to 35.1 cm3). All dogs had a reduction in prostatic volume after PAE, with a median prostatic volume loss of 39.4% (95% CI, 20.3% to 59.3%).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Prostatic artery embolization was associated with decreased prostate volume and improved clinical signs in this cohort. The short-term response to PAE appears promising, and evaluation of the long-term impact on survival time is needed.