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Abstract

Objective

To identify the cause and mechanisms of injury in gastroesophageal ulcer disease in market weight swine.

Design

Comparison of mechanisms of injury caused by HCI with those caused by short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in gastric mucosa.

Animals

Pigs weighing 30 to 40 kg.

Procedure

Gastric tissues were studied in Ussing chambers; short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical resistance (R) were recorded in response to treatment, and tissues were examined histologically.

Results

60 mM mucosal acetate abruptly (≤ 75 minutes) and irreversibly abolished Isc at pH ≤ 4.5, whereas R decreased more slowly. These data were associated with cell swelling and vesicle formation in mid-zonal layers, followed by sloughing of the outer barrier, erosion into deeper zones, and finally, ulceration. Mucosal HCI at pH > 1.5 was ineffective; however, at pH 1.5, HCI induced an abrupt decrease in R, followed by a slow decrease in Isc, an effect opposite to that caused by SCFA. Serosal addition of HCI rapidly abolished Isc suggesting a barrier to free H+ diffusion from the mucosal solution.

Conclusions

Undissociated SCFA rapidly penetrate the outer barrier and acidify underlying viable tissue. Cellular acidification inhibits Na pumping and osmoregulation, resulting in cell swelling and necrosis. In contrast, HCI induces an increase in outer barrier permeability before accessing the transporting cells, a much longer process (≥ 5 hours) requiring a lower pH. These studies suggest that microbial production of SCFA may be important in the pathogenesis of porcine gastric ulcers. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:564-573)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In contrast to the net absorption of Na and Cl ions observed in vivo, porcine small intestine had a net secretion of these ions in vitro. These discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro results have led to difficulties in interpretation of studies investigating mechanisms of intestinal secretion and diarrhea in this species. To examine the influence of endogenous prostanoids on ion transport in neonatal porcine ileum in vitro, tissues were prepared and studied in indomethacin. Net absorption of Na, reversal of net Cl secretion to net absorption, and decreased short circuit current were observed. Conversely, addition of prostaglandins to indomethacin-treated tissues reversed these effects and reestablished conditions similar to those observed in control tissues. Control tissue was essentially refractory to the effects of exogenous prostaglandins. Results indicate that under in vitro conditions, ion transport in neonatal porcine ileum is tightly regulated by endogenous prostanoids that abolish the neutral NaCl absorptive mechanism and elicit electrogenic Cl secretion. However, concentrations of these prostanoids may have been artificially high as a result of tissue preparation for in vitro study.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The effect of meal size and frequency on plasma volume, plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na and K clearances was determined in ponies. A daily maintenance ration of hay-grain pellets was provided either as a multiple feeding regimen, ie, 12 equal portions fed at 2-hour intervals, or as single large feedings, ie, half the ration fed every 12 hours at 0800 and 2000 hours. Only the effect of the single morning feeding was studied, using the latter regimen. Serial measurements of plasma volume were made by use of an indicator-dilution technique and indocyanine green (0.15 mg/kg of body weight, iv) that allowed repeated determinations at 2-hour intervals. Ingestion of the single large meal caused a 15% decrease in plasma volume by the end of a 1-hour feeding period. Feeding hypovolemia was confirmed by a coincident increase in plasma protein concentration (12%) and, in separate experiments, by analysis of postfeeding changes in the elimination of Evans blue dye. Plasma aldosterone concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) increased from 2 to 5 hours after feeding. Urinary Na clearance decreased in response to feeding and remained lower than the prefeeding value until 9 hours after feeding. Urinary K clearance increased from prefeeding and reached a peak value between 5 and 7 hours after feeding. Creatinine clearance was unaffected. In contrast, the aforementioned variables were unchanged during the multiple regimen. Results indicate that ingestion of a large concentrate meal by ponies causes periprandial hypovolemia, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and a subsequent antinaturesis-kaluresis that lasts for several hours.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and lactate concentrations in stomach contents and determine number and severity of gastric lesions in horses fed bromegrass hay and alfalfa hay-grain diets.

Animals—Six 7-year-old horses.

Procedure—A gastric cannula was inserted in each horse. Horses were fed each diet, using a randomized crossover design. Stomach contents were collected immediately after feeding and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after feeding on day 14. The pH and VFA and lactate concentrations were measured in gastric juice. Number and severity of gastric lesions were scored during endoscopic examinations.

Results—The alfalfa hay-grain diet caused significantly higher pH in gastric juice during the first 5 hours after feeding, compared with that for bromegrass hay. Concentrations of acetic, propionic, and isovaleric acid were significantly higher in gastric juice, and number and severity of nonglandular squamous gastric lesions were significantly lower in horses fed alfalfa hay-grain. Valeric acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid concentrations and pH were useful in predicting severity of nonglandular squamous gastric lesions in horses fed alfalfa hay-grain, whereas valeric acid concentrations and butyric acid were useful in predicting severity of those lesions in horses fed bromegrass hay.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An alfalfa haygrain diet induced significantly higher pH and VFA concentrations in gastric juice than did bromegrass hay. However, number and severity of nonglandular squamous gastric lesions were significantly lower in horses fed alfalfa hay-grain. An alfalfa hay-grain diet may buffer stomach acid in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 784–790)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers by comparing injury to the nonglandular gastric mucosa of horses caused by hydrochloric acid (HCl) or volatile fatty acids (VFAs).

Sample Population—Gastric tissues from 30 horses.

Procedure—Nonglandular gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference were measured and electrical resistance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs to normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Tissues were examined histologically.

Results—Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH, 1.5) had a significant decrease in Isc, compared with Isc for mucosa exposed to NRS at pH 4.0 or 7.0. Also, exposure to 60mM acetic, propionic, and butyric acids (pH, 4.0 or 1.5) caused an immediate significant decrease in Isc. Recovery of sodium transport was detected only in samples exposed to acetic acid at pH 4.0. Recovery of sodium transport was not seen in other mucosal samples exposed to VFAs at pH ≤ 4.0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and, to a lesser extent, HCl caused decreases in mucosal barrier function of the nonglandular portion of the equine stomach. Because of their lipid solubility at pH ≤ 4.0, undissociated VFAs penetrate cells in the nonglandular gastric mucosa, which causes acidification of cellular contents, inhibition of sodium transport, and cellular swelling. Results indicate that HCl alone or in combination with VFAs at gastric pH ≤ 4.0 may be important in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:404–412)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify in vitro effects of hydrochloric acid, valeric acid, and other volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the equine stomach.

Sample Population—Gastric tissues from 13 adult horses.

Procedure—Nonglandular gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference were measured and electrical resistance and conductance calculated after tissues were bathed in normal Ringer's solution (NRS) or NRS and hydrochloric, valeric, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Treated tissues were examined histologically.

Results—Incubation in 60mM valeric acid at pH ≤ 7.0 abruptly and irreversibly abolished Isc, which was followed by a slower decrease in resistance and an increase in conductance. Incubation in 60mM acetic, propionic, and butyric acids and, to a lesser extent, hydrochloric acid at pH ≤ 7.0 significantly decreased Isc, which was followed by an increase in resistance and a decrease in conductance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incubation in valeric acid at pH ≤ 7.0 caused a dramatic decrease in mucosal barrier function in the nonglandular portion of the stomach. Changes in barrier function attributable to exposure to valeric acid were associated with histopathologic evidence of cellular swelling in all layers of the nonglandular mucosa. Because of its high lipid solubility, valeric acid penetrates the nonglandular gastric mucosa, resulting in inhibition of sodium transport and cellular swelling. Valeric acid and other VFAs in gastric contents may contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:413–417)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop an endoscopic technique for use in monitoring devlopment of gastric ulcers via a gastric cannula during withholding of feed and administration of a finely ground diet to pigs.

Animals—6 pigs weighing between 60 and 70 kg.

Procedure—A gastric cannula was surgically inserted adjacent to the pars esophagea in each pig. Pigs were fed a finely ground diet for two 7-day periods that were separated by a 48-hour period during which feed was withheld. Endoscopic examination via the gastric cannula was used to monitor development of ulcers in the pars esophageal region of the pigs during the 48-hour period of feed withhold and subsequent 7-day feeding period. An ulcer score was assigned during each endoscopic examination. A final examination was performed during necropsy and compared with results for the final endoscopic examination.

Results—Consumption of a finely ground diet for 7 days resulted in progressive erosive damage to the pars esophageal region of the stomach. Further significant increases in ulcerative damage were detected after 24 and 48 hours of withholding of feed. Final examination during necropsy did not reveal significant differences from results obtained during the final endoscopic examination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Endoscopic examination via a gastric cannula was an effective means of monitoring ulcer development in the pars esophagea of pigs. Feeding a finely ground diet and withholding of feed induced endoscopically observable ulcers in the stratified squamous epithelial region of the stomach. Direct visual examination during necropsy confirmed the accuracy of endoscopic examination. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1076–1082)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate intestinal permeability and gluten sensitivity in a family of Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWT) affected with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.

Animals—6 affected adult dogs.

Procedure—Intestinal biopsy specimens, urine protein- to-creatinine ratio, serum concentrations of albumin and globulin, and concentration of α1-protease inhibitor in feces were evaluated before, during, and 13 weeks after daily administration of 10 g of gluten for 7 weeks. Eosinophils and lymphocytes-plasmacytes were enumerated in intestinal biopsy specimens. Intestinal permeability was evaluated before and during the sixth week of gluten administration via cellobiose-mannitol and chromium-EDTA absorption tests.

Results—Serum globulin concentration decreased significantly after prolonged administration of gluten. Although not significant, there was an increase in lymphocytes- plasmacytes and a decrease in eosinophils in intestinal biopsy specimens. Furthermore, these counts were greater than those reported for clinically normal dogs. Gluten administration did not increase intestinal permeability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Daily administration of gluten was associated with a significant decrease in serum globulin concentration in SCWT affected with PLE or PLN, but other variables remained unchanged. Although enhanced wheatgluten sensitivity may be one factor involved in the pathogenesis of PLE or PLN in SCWT, this syndrome does not appear to be the result of a specific sensitivity to gluten. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:518–524)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research