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  • Author or Editor: Richard L. Meadows x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare measurements of body temperature obtained with auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—100 client-owned dogs: 50 with and 50 without clinical evidence of otitis externa.

Procedure—Dogs were evaluated for the presence of otitis externa on the basis of clinical signs, otoscopic examination, and cytologic evaluation of ear exudate. Auricular and rectal temperatures were obtained simultaneously in all dogs prior to and following ear examination.

Results—There was a high correlation between auricular and rectal temperatures in dogs with otitis externa both prior to and after ear manipulation. Significant differences were not detected in temperature measurements among dogs with different degrees of otitis externa.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Auricular temperature readings obtained by use of an auricular thermometer in dogs with otitis externa are accurate measurements of body temperature, compared with rectal temperature measurements. Temperature measurements are reliable before and after examination of the ear canal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002; 221:378–380)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for use in dogs, cats, and horses.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—7 horses, 3 cats, and 4 dogs that were clinically normal and 1 horse, 2 cats, and 3 dogs with diabetes mellitus.

Procedure—Interstitial glucose concentrations were monitored and recorded every 5 minutes by use of a CGMS. Interstitial glucose concentrations were compared with whole blood glucose concentrations as determined by a point-of-care glucose meter. Interstitial glucose concentrations were also monitored in 2 clinically normal horses after oral and IV administration of glucose.

Results—There was a positive correlation between interstitial and whole blood glucose concentrations for clinically normal dogs, cats, and horses and those with diabetes mellitus. Events such as feeding, glucose or insulin administration, restraint, and transport to the clinic were recorded by the owner or clinician and could be identified on the graph and associated with time of occurrence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our data indicate that use of CGMS is valid for dogs, cats, and horses. This system alleviated the need for multiple blood samples and the stress associated with obtaining those samples. Because hospitalization was not required, information obtained from the CGMS provided a more accurate assessment of the animal's glucose concentrations for an extended period, compared with measurement of blood glucose concentrations. Use of the CGMS will promote the diagnostic and research potential of serial glucose monitoring. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 987–992)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


This article describes the core competencies recommended for inclusion in the veterinary curriculum for all veterinary graduates based on the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges Competency-Based Veterinary Education document. General practice companion animal veterinarians are frequently presented with patients having dental, oral, or maxillofacial pathology, and veterinary graduates will be relied upon for recommendations for the maintenance of oral health, including the prevention of periodontal disease, identification of endodontic disease, and knowledge of developmental defects. These recommendations should be made for all veterinary patients starting at a young age. These core competencies can apply to many companion species, but mainly are focused on the dog and cat.

Because periodontal disease is the most common abnormality observed in dogs and cats, the first key step is taking a few seconds during examination of every patient of any age presented for any reason to examine the oral cavity. Although dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is often diagnosed after imaging and evaluation under anesthesia, the first step is observation of dentition and gingivae during the conscious exam to assess periodontal health status. The physical exam of the oral cavity may reveal oral behavior (eg, observation of uncomplicated crown fractures due to chewing on hard objects), which will permit recommendations for enhanced prevention by daily oral hygiene or professional treatment.

There are now many involved dental and surgical treatments available, some of which require specialist-level instrumentation and expertise. General practitioners should be able to competently perform the following immediately upon graduation from veterinary school:

  • For patients for whom the owner’s reason for the veterinary visit is not dental, oral, or maxillofacial disease, obtain a brief (1 or 2 questions) history of the oral health of the patient.

  • On lifting the lip of every patient, recognize presence or absence of accumulated dental plaque or calculus on the crowns of the teeth, presence or absence of gingival inflammation or ulceration, and presence or absence of other dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology.

  • On anesthetized patients that have dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology for which professional treatment is indicated, be able to obtain and interpret appropriately positioned and exposed dental radiographs.

  • When the presence of dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is recognized, determine whether each tooth present in the mouth does or does not require professional treatment beyond dental subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing.

  • List the indications for tooth extraction, know indications for potential oral/dental treatments beyond subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing or extraction, and determine whether the professional treatment that may be indicated, such as root canal treatment or mass resection of oral tissues, requires referral for specialist-level expertise and instrumentation.

  • Complete a thorough periodontal evaluation and therapy with periodontal probing, including professional subgingival and supragingival ultrasonic scaling with polishing under anesthesia.

  • Demonstrate the ability to extract teeth indicated for extraction, using gentle and appropriate techniques that will risk minimal injury to the jaws and oral soft tissues and reduce postoperative patient pain.

  • Provide appropriate postoperative care, including recognition of when postoperative analgesia and possibly antibiotic administration are indicated.

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